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Comparison of antispasmodic effects of Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol.

Sadraei H, Asghari G, Kasiri F - Res Pharm Sci (2015 Mar-Apr)

Bottom Line: Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran.Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent.Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

ABSTRACT
Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran. In Iranian traditional medicine, D. kotschyi has been used as antispasmodic and analgesic but so far there is no pharmacological report about its antispasmodic activity. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activity of the essential oil of D. kotschyi and two of its constituents namely limonene and α-terpineol. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of D. kotschyi using hydrodistillation method. The main components found in the essential oil were α-pinene (10%), neral (11%), geraniol (10%), α-citral (12%), limonene (9%) and α-terpineol (1.1%). For antispasmodic studies, a portion of rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effect of the D. kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The essential oil, in a concentration dependent manner inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=51 ± 8.7 nl/ml), ACh (IC50=19 ± 2.7 nl/ml) and EFS (IC50=15 ± 0.5 nl/ml). Limonene and α-terpineol showed same pattern of inhibitory effect on ileum contraction. Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent. However, limonene was more potent than the essential oil while the α-terpineol was less potent than either limonene or the essential oil. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil has inhibitory effect on ileum contractions. Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of limonene, α-terpineol and Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil on tension development to a; first and b; second contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 6 V, 50 Hz, 1 s duration) in isolated ileum of rats. Ordinate scale: ileum contractions expressed as % of initial control response. Abscissa scale: log10 concentration of drugs (limonene, α-terpineol or D. kotschyi essential oil). Lines drawn through the points, using two fold increments in concentration. The points are mean and the vertical bars show the SEM (n=6). The changes in the response of vehicle treated control tissues is not statistically significant (ANOVA). Stars shows statistical differences between each drug concentration with its corresponding vehicle treated control. Keys: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 (Student's t-test). Maximum concentration of vehicle (DMSO) in the bath was 1.28%.
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Figure 3: Effect of limonene, α-terpineol and Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil on tension development to a; first and b; second contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 6 V, 50 Hz, 1 s duration) in isolated ileum of rats. Ordinate scale: ileum contractions expressed as % of initial control response. Abscissa scale: log10 concentration of drugs (limonene, α-terpineol or D. kotschyi essential oil). Lines drawn through the points, using two fold increments in concentration. The points are mean and the vertical bars show the SEM (n=6). The changes in the response of vehicle treated control tissues is not statistically significant (ANOVA). Stars shows statistical differences between each drug concentration with its corresponding vehicle treated control. Keys: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 (Student's t-test). Maximum concentration of vehicle (DMSO) in the bath was 1.28%.

Mentions: Limonene, α-terpineol and the essential oil of D. kotschyi (1-128 nl/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by ACh (0.5 μM, Fig. 2). The order of potencies were limonene > essential oil > α-terpineol. The essential oil and limonene at 32 potencies were limonene > essential oil > α-terpineol. The essential oil and limonene at 32 nl/ml bath concentration almost vanished the contractile response to ACh, while α-terpineol only reduced the ACh response by about 4%. The IC50 values are compared in Table 2. There was some increase in responses of ACh in the tissues treated with the vehicle (DMSO + water) but these changes were not statistically significant (Fig. 2). The inhibitory effect of the essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol on ACh responses was reversible following washing the tissue with fresh Tyrode's solution. Relaxant effect of limonene, α-terpineol and the essential oil of D. kotschyi were also examined on biphasic contractions induced by EFS. All three compounds in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contractions induced by EFS (Fig. 3). The ranges and order of inhibition are similar to that of ACh. The IC50 value of limonene, α-terpineol and the essential oil of D. kotschyi on the initial and the secondary contractile response are shown in Table 2. Inhibitory effect of these compounds on the both initial and the secondary contraction induced by EFS were more or less the same (Figs. 3a, 3b). Following washing the tissue with fresh Tyrode's solution, the inhibitory effect of these compounds was reversible. The isolation in responses of vehicle treated time-matched control tissues were not statistically significant (ANOVA).


Comparison of antispasmodic effects of Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol.

Sadraei H, Asghari G, Kasiri F - Res Pharm Sci (2015 Mar-Apr)

Effect of limonene, α-terpineol and Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil on tension development to a; first and b; second contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 6 V, 50 Hz, 1 s duration) in isolated ileum of rats. Ordinate scale: ileum contractions expressed as % of initial control response. Abscissa scale: log10 concentration of drugs (limonene, α-terpineol or D. kotschyi essential oil). Lines drawn through the points, using two fold increments in concentration. The points are mean and the vertical bars show the SEM (n=6). The changes in the response of vehicle treated control tissues is not statistically significant (ANOVA). Stars shows statistical differences between each drug concentration with its corresponding vehicle treated control. Keys: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 (Student's t-test). Maximum concentration of vehicle (DMSO) in the bath was 1.28%.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4584449&req=5

Figure 3: Effect of limonene, α-terpineol and Dracocephalum kotschyi essential oil on tension development to a; first and b; second contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 6 V, 50 Hz, 1 s duration) in isolated ileum of rats. Ordinate scale: ileum contractions expressed as % of initial control response. Abscissa scale: log10 concentration of drugs (limonene, α-terpineol or D. kotschyi essential oil). Lines drawn through the points, using two fold increments in concentration. The points are mean and the vertical bars show the SEM (n=6). The changes in the response of vehicle treated control tissues is not statistically significant (ANOVA). Stars shows statistical differences between each drug concentration with its corresponding vehicle treated control. Keys: *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 (Student's t-test). Maximum concentration of vehicle (DMSO) in the bath was 1.28%.
Mentions: Limonene, α-terpineol and the essential oil of D. kotschyi (1-128 nl/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by ACh (0.5 μM, Fig. 2). The order of potencies were limonene > essential oil > α-terpineol. The essential oil and limonene at 32 potencies were limonene > essential oil > α-terpineol. The essential oil and limonene at 32 nl/ml bath concentration almost vanished the contractile response to ACh, while α-terpineol only reduced the ACh response by about 4%. The IC50 values are compared in Table 2. There was some increase in responses of ACh in the tissues treated with the vehicle (DMSO + water) but these changes were not statistically significant (Fig. 2). The inhibitory effect of the essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol on ACh responses was reversible following washing the tissue with fresh Tyrode's solution. Relaxant effect of limonene, α-terpineol and the essential oil of D. kotschyi were also examined on biphasic contractions induced by EFS. All three compounds in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contractions induced by EFS (Fig. 3). The ranges and order of inhibition are similar to that of ACh. The IC50 value of limonene, α-terpineol and the essential oil of D. kotschyi on the initial and the secondary contractile response are shown in Table 2. Inhibitory effect of these compounds on the both initial and the secondary contraction induced by EFS were more or less the same (Figs. 3a, 3b). Following washing the tissue with fresh Tyrode's solution, the inhibitory effect of these compounds was reversible. The isolation in responses of vehicle treated time-matched control tissues were not statistically significant (ANOVA).

Bottom Line: Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran.Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent.Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

ABSTRACT
Dracocephalum kotschyi is an essential oil containing plant found in Iran. In Iranian traditional medicine, D. kotschyi has been used as antispasmodic and analgesic but so far there is no pharmacological report about its antispasmodic activity. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activity of the essential oil of D. kotschyi and two of its constituents namely limonene and α-terpineol. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of D. kotschyi using hydrodistillation method. The main components found in the essential oil were α-pinene (10%), neral (11%), geraniol (10%), α-citral (12%), limonene (9%) and α-terpineol (1.1%). For antispasmodic studies, a portion of rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effect of the D. kotschyi essential oil, limonene and α-terpineol were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The essential oil, in a concentration dependent manner inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=51 ± 8.7 nl/ml), ACh (IC50=19 ± 2.7 nl/ml) and EFS (IC50=15 ± 0.5 nl/ml). Limonene and α-terpineol showed same pattern of inhibitory effect on ileum contraction. Their inhibitory effects were also concentration dependent. However, limonene was more potent than the essential oil while the α-terpineol was less potent than either limonene or the essential oil. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi essential oil has inhibitory effect on ileum contractions. Limonene contribute a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential oil while α-terpineol has weak antispasmodic activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus