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Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus.

Reid WR, Zhang L, Liu N - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal.In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48 h and 60 h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are likely involved in the digestion of the blood meal.Overall, this study reviewed multiple genes that might be involved in the adult female competency for blood meal acquisition in mosquitoes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA ; 2. Current address: UDSA-ARS Center for Medical Veterinary and Agricultural Entomology, Mosquito and Fly Research Unit, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.

ABSTRACT
Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to identify genes that may be necessary for both taking of the blood meal, and processing of the blood meal in adult female mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus. We examined temporal expression of genes for the periods of post eclosion and prior to the female freely taking a blood meal. We further evaluated the temporal expression of certain genes for the periods after the taking of a blood meal to identify genes that may be necessary for both the taking of the blood meal, and the processing of the blood meal. We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures were altered in the mosquitoes before blood feeding in preparation for the acquisition of the blood meal through changes in multiple gene expression. To identify the genes involved in the acquisition of blood feeding, we quantified the gene expression levels of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus using RNA Seq throughout a pre-blooding period from 2 to 72 h post eclosion at 12 h intervals. A total of 325 genes were determined to be differentially-expressed throughout the pre-blooding period, with the majority of differentially-expressed genes occurring between the 2 h and 12 h post-eclosion time points. Among the up-regulated genes were salivary proteins, cytochrome P450s, odorant-binding proteins, and proteases, while the majority of the down-regulated genes were hypothetical or cuticular genes. In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48 h and 60 h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are likely involved in the digestion of the blood meal. Overall, this study reviewed multiple genes that might be involved in the adult female competency for blood meal acquisition in mosquitoes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time periods of pre and post blood-feeding of mosquitoes. Box and whisker plot of the percentage of females from even-aged populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus strain HAmCqG8 freely taking an offered blood meal. The black lines within a bar represent the median percentage of females who freely took a blood meal. The upper and lower whiskers represent the highest and lowest observations, respectively, while the bars themselves represent the interquartile range (Q1 - Q3).
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Figure 1: Time periods of pre and post blood-feeding of mosquitoes. Box and whisker plot of the percentage of females from even-aged populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus strain HAmCqG8 freely taking an offered blood meal. The black lines within a bar represent the median percentage of females who freely took a blood meal. The upper and lower whiskers represent the highest and lowest observations, respectively, while the bars themselves represent the interquartile range (Q1 - Q3).

Mentions: When newly eclosed female Cx. quinquefasciatus were offered a pre-warmed blood meal, our results showed that mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus needed to be a minimum of 48 h old following eclosion to prepare the female for the first blood meal (Fig. 1). When mosquito populations had reached 96 h of post-eclosion, the average number of females taking a blood meal plateaued at ~50% with no observable increase in blood meal taking by females beyond this time point. This suggested that under our experimental conditions, the minimum pre-blood meal competency time period for females was ~48 h, after which females became competent to take a blood meal, reaching maximum blood meal acquisition at ~96 h post-eclosion.


Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus.

Reid WR, Zhang L, Liu N - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Time periods of pre and post blood-feeding of mosquitoes. Box and whisker plot of the percentage of females from even-aged populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus strain HAmCqG8 freely taking an offered blood meal. The black lines within a bar represent the median percentage of females who freely took a blood meal. The upper and lower whiskers represent the highest and lowest observations, respectively, while the bars themselves represent the interquartile range (Q1 - Q3).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582154&req=5

Figure 1: Time periods of pre and post blood-feeding of mosquitoes. Box and whisker plot of the percentage of females from even-aged populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus strain HAmCqG8 freely taking an offered blood meal. The black lines within a bar represent the median percentage of females who freely took a blood meal. The upper and lower whiskers represent the highest and lowest observations, respectively, while the bars themselves represent the interquartile range (Q1 - Q3).
Mentions: When newly eclosed female Cx. quinquefasciatus were offered a pre-warmed blood meal, our results showed that mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus needed to be a minimum of 48 h old following eclosion to prepare the female for the first blood meal (Fig. 1). When mosquito populations had reached 96 h of post-eclosion, the average number of females taking a blood meal plateaued at ~50% with no observable increase in blood meal taking by females beyond this time point. This suggested that under our experimental conditions, the minimum pre-blood meal competency time period for females was ~48 h, after which females became competent to take a blood meal, reaching maximum blood meal acquisition at ~96 h post-eclosion.

Bottom Line: We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal.In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48 h and 60 h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are likely involved in the digestion of the blood meal.Overall, this study reviewed multiple genes that might be involved in the adult female competency for blood meal acquisition in mosquitoes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA ; 2. Current address: UDSA-ARS Center for Medical Veterinary and Agricultural Entomology, Mosquito and Fly Research Unit, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA.

ABSTRACT
Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to identify genes that may be necessary for both taking of the blood meal, and processing of the blood meal in adult female mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus. We examined temporal expression of genes for the periods of post eclosion and prior to the female freely taking a blood meal. We further evaluated the temporal expression of certain genes for the periods after the taking of a blood meal to identify genes that may be necessary for both the taking of the blood meal, and the processing of the blood meal. We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures were altered in the mosquitoes before blood feeding in preparation for the acquisition of the blood meal through changes in multiple gene expression. To identify the genes involved in the acquisition of blood feeding, we quantified the gene expression levels of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus using RNA Seq throughout a pre-blooding period from 2 to 72 h post eclosion at 12 h intervals. A total of 325 genes were determined to be differentially-expressed throughout the pre-blooding period, with the majority of differentially-expressed genes occurring between the 2 h and 12 h post-eclosion time points. Among the up-regulated genes were salivary proteins, cytochrome P450s, odorant-binding proteins, and proteases, while the majority of the down-regulated genes were hypothetical or cuticular genes. In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48 h and 60 h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are likely involved in the digestion of the blood meal. Overall, this study reviewed multiple genes that might be involved in the adult female competency for blood meal acquisition in mosquitoes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus