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The study of the Bithorax-complex genes in patterning CCAP neurons reveals a temporal control of neuronal differentiation by Abd-B.

Moris-Sanz M, Estacio-Gómez A, Sánchez-Herrero E, Díaz-Benjumea FJ - Biol Open (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-A are not necessary for specification of the CCAP-interneurons, but are absolutely required to prevent the death by apoptosis of the CCAP-efferent neurons.Furthermore, Abdominal-B controls by repression the temporal onset of neuropeptide expression in a subset of CCAP-efferent neurons, and a peak of ecdysone hormone at the end of larval life counteracts this repression.Thus, Bithorax complex genes control the developmental appearance of these neuropeptides both temporally and spatially.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Biología Molecular-Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), c./Nicolás Cabrera 1, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid 28049, Spain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the ventral nerve cord. (A-C) Diagram of the pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the CCAP neurons of first (A) and third (B) instar larvae and early pupae (C). The expression of Dac (blue) is indicated. An enlarged view is shown on the right. EN, efferent neuron; IN, interneuron; SE, subesophageal segments; Th, thoracic segments; Ab, abdominal segments. Differences in level of expression are not indicated. Due to its enormous variability, the expression of these genes in segments A8–9 is not indicated.
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BIO012872F1: Pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the ventral nerve cord. (A-C) Diagram of the pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the CCAP neurons of first (A) and third (B) instar larvae and early pupae (C). The expression of Dac (blue) is indicated. An enlarged view is shown on the right. EN, efferent neuron; IN, interneuron; SE, subesophageal segments; Th, thoracic segments; Ab, abdominal segments. Differences in level of expression are not indicated. Due to its enormous variability, the expression of these genes in segments A8–9 is not indicated.

Mentions: There are two types of CCAP neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the fly: interneurons (CCAP-INs) and efferent neurons (CCAP-ENs). Three main features distinguish these two types of neurons: expression of the gene dachshund (dac) in the ENs, the efferent axons of the ENs, which exit the ganglion via the lateral segmental nerve, and expression of the gene hunchback in the INs (Moris-Sanz et al., 2014; Veverytsa and Allan, 2012). In the VNC of first instar larvae, CCAP-INs expressing both CCAP and Bursα are present in the subesophageal (SE1–3), thoracic (T1–3) and first seven abdominal segments (A1–7), one per hemisegment (Fig. 1A). At this stage, CCAP-ENs are only found in segments T3–A4. Of these cells, only the cells of the T3 segment and, generally, one of the abdominal ones, express CCAP (Fig. 1A). This pattern changes over time and, indeed, in third instar larva, all the CCAP-ENs of T3–A4 segments express both CCAP and Bursα. Later, in early pupal development, one extra CCAP-EN expressing both neuropeptides appears in each of the A5–7 hemisegments, and these last neurons have been called “late” CCAP-ENs (Veverytsa and Allan, 2012). During pupal development, three more ENs appear in hemisegments A8–9, the “posterior late” CCAP-ENs (Fig. 1; supplementary material Fig. S1).Fig. 1.


The study of the Bithorax-complex genes in patterning CCAP neurons reveals a temporal control of neuronal differentiation by Abd-B.

Moris-Sanz M, Estacio-Gómez A, Sánchez-Herrero E, Díaz-Benjumea FJ - Biol Open (2015)

Pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the ventral nerve cord. (A-C) Diagram of the pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the CCAP neurons of first (A) and third (B) instar larvae and early pupae (C). The expression of Dac (blue) is indicated. An enlarged view is shown on the right. EN, efferent neuron; IN, interneuron; SE, subesophageal segments; Th, thoracic segments; Ab, abdominal segments. Differences in level of expression are not indicated. Due to its enormous variability, the expression of these genes in segments A8–9 is not indicated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582124&req=5

BIO012872F1: Pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the ventral nerve cord. (A-C) Diagram of the pattern of expression of CCAP, Bursα and MIP in the CCAP neurons of first (A) and third (B) instar larvae and early pupae (C). The expression of Dac (blue) is indicated. An enlarged view is shown on the right. EN, efferent neuron; IN, interneuron; SE, subesophageal segments; Th, thoracic segments; Ab, abdominal segments. Differences in level of expression are not indicated. Due to its enormous variability, the expression of these genes in segments A8–9 is not indicated.
Mentions: There are two types of CCAP neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the fly: interneurons (CCAP-INs) and efferent neurons (CCAP-ENs). Three main features distinguish these two types of neurons: expression of the gene dachshund (dac) in the ENs, the efferent axons of the ENs, which exit the ganglion via the lateral segmental nerve, and expression of the gene hunchback in the INs (Moris-Sanz et al., 2014; Veverytsa and Allan, 2012). In the VNC of first instar larvae, CCAP-INs expressing both CCAP and Bursα are present in the subesophageal (SE1–3), thoracic (T1–3) and first seven abdominal segments (A1–7), one per hemisegment (Fig. 1A). At this stage, CCAP-ENs are only found in segments T3–A4. Of these cells, only the cells of the T3 segment and, generally, one of the abdominal ones, express CCAP (Fig. 1A). This pattern changes over time and, indeed, in third instar larva, all the CCAP-ENs of T3–A4 segments express both CCAP and Bursα. Later, in early pupal development, one extra CCAP-EN expressing both neuropeptides appears in each of the A5–7 hemisegments, and these last neurons have been called “late” CCAP-ENs (Veverytsa and Allan, 2012). During pupal development, three more ENs appear in hemisegments A8–9, the “posterior late” CCAP-ENs (Fig. 1; supplementary material Fig. S1).Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: Our results indicate that Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-A are not necessary for specification of the CCAP-interneurons, but are absolutely required to prevent the death by apoptosis of the CCAP-efferent neurons.Furthermore, Abdominal-B controls by repression the temporal onset of neuropeptide expression in a subset of CCAP-efferent neurons, and a peak of ecdysone hormone at the end of larval life counteracts this repression.Thus, Bithorax complex genes control the developmental appearance of these neuropeptides both temporally and spatially.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Biología Molecular-Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), c./Nicolás Cabrera 1, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid 28049, Spain.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus