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The evolution of the dystroglycan complex, a major mediator of muscle integrity.

Adams JC, Brancaccio A - Biol Open (2015)

Bottom Line: This comprises the non-covalently-associated extracellular α-DG, that interacts with laminin in the BM, and the transmembrane β-DG, that interacts principally with dystrophin to connect to the actin cytoskeleton.Phylogenetic analysis based on the C-terminal IG2_MAT_NU region identified three distinct clades corresponding to deuterostomes, arthropods, and mollusks/early-diverging metazoans.Whereas the glycosyltransferases that modify α-DG are also present in choanoflagellates, the DG-binding proteins dystrophin and laminin originated at the base of the metazoa, and DG-associated sarcoglycan is restricted to cnidarians and bilaterians.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Biomedical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic analysis based on the IG2_MAT-NU region of dystroglycans. The IG2_MAT_NU regions from DGs from 46 species (245 positions) were aligned in PRANK and phylogenetic trees constructed (A) in PhyML with 200 cycles of boot-strapping, or (B) as a consensus tree in PROTPARS. Unrooted trees are presented with proportionate branch lengths. Scale bars=substitutions/site. In A, only bootstrap branch support values >0.95 are shown. Codes for species names are as in Table 2.
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BIO012468F5: Phylogenetic analysis based on the IG2_MAT-NU region of dystroglycans. The IG2_MAT_NU regions from DGs from 46 species (245 positions) were aligned in PRANK and phylogenetic trees constructed (A) in PhyML with 200 cycles of boot-strapping, or (B) as a consensus tree in PROTPARS. Unrooted trees are presented with proportionate branch lengths. Scale bars=substitutions/site. In A, only bootstrap branch support values >0.95 are shown. Codes for species names are as in Table 2.

Mentions: In view that the IG2-MAT-NU region is the most highly conserved region in all DGs in terms of domain organization, and has high sequence identity across species, this region was chosen for phylogenetic analyses of DGs. Initial analyses showed that urochordate or annelid DGs could not be placed stably due to their extreme sequence divergence from other DGs. In the interest of obtaining the most robustly-supported phylogenetic trees, these were not included in the final dataset. The final alignments were based on 245 positions and 46 species that provide taxon representation of all phyla that have DGs apart from urochordates and annelids. A phylogenetic tree prepared from a PRANK alignment by the maximum likelihood method, PhyML, identified three broad clades, comprising DGs from deuterostomes, arthropods, and other invertebrates, respectively. Of these, the arthropod clade was the most strongly supported as a discrete group and in general the deep branches of the tree received only weak bootstrap support (Fig. 5A). Interestingly, given their similar domain architecture to vertebrate DGs, the DGs from molluscs grouped in clade 3 with the early-diverging metazoans. O. carmela DG was reported as most closely related to cnidarian DGs (Fig. 5A). A consensus tree from maximum parsimony analysis, PROTPARS, yielded a similar overall tree topology with three clades that corresponded for the most part to those identified by PhyML. However, this analysis placed the nematode DGs on the same branch as S. kowalevskii DG (Fig. 5B). Further tests with different sequence alignment algorithms such as MUSCLE did not yield improvements to this tree topology.Fig. 5.


The evolution of the dystroglycan complex, a major mediator of muscle integrity.

Adams JC, Brancaccio A - Biol Open (2015)

Phylogenetic analysis based on the IG2_MAT-NU region of dystroglycans. The IG2_MAT_NU regions from DGs from 46 species (245 positions) were aligned in PRANK and phylogenetic trees constructed (A) in PhyML with 200 cycles of boot-strapping, or (B) as a consensus tree in PROTPARS. Unrooted trees are presented with proportionate branch lengths. Scale bars=substitutions/site. In A, only bootstrap branch support values >0.95 are shown. Codes for species names are as in Table 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582122&req=5

BIO012468F5: Phylogenetic analysis based on the IG2_MAT-NU region of dystroglycans. The IG2_MAT_NU regions from DGs from 46 species (245 positions) were aligned in PRANK and phylogenetic trees constructed (A) in PhyML with 200 cycles of boot-strapping, or (B) as a consensus tree in PROTPARS. Unrooted trees are presented with proportionate branch lengths. Scale bars=substitutions/site. In A, only bootstrap branch support values >0.95 are shown. Codes for species names are as in Table 2.
Mentions: In view that the IG2-MAT-NU region is the most highly conserved region in all DGs in terms of domain organization, and has high sequence identity across species, this region was chosen for phylogenetic analyses of DGs. Initial analyses showed that urochordate or annelid DGs could not be placed stably due to their extreme sequence divergence from other DGs. In the interest of obtaining the most robustly-supported phylogenetic trees, these were not included in the final dataset. The final alignments were based on 245 positions and 46 species that provide taxon representation of all phyla that have DGs apart from urochordates and annelids. A phylogenetic tree prepared from a PRANK alignment by the maximum likelihood method, PhyML, identified three broad clades, comprising DGs from deuterostomes, arthropods, and other invertebrates, respectively. Of these, the arthropod clade was the most strongly supported as a discrete group and in general the deep branches of the tree received only weak bootstrap support (Fig. 5A). Interestingly, given their similar domain architecture to vertebrate DGs, the DGs from molluscs grouped in clade 3 with the early-diverging metazoans. O. carmela DG was reported as most closely related to cnidarian DGs (Fig. 5A). A consensus tree from maximum parsimony analysis, PROTPARS, yielded a similar overall tree topology with three clades that corresponded for the most part to those identified by PhyML. However, this analysis placed the nematode DGs on the same branch as S. kowalevskii DG (Fig. 5B). Further tests with different sequence alignment algorithms such as MUSCLE did not yield improvements to this tree topology.Fig. 5.

Bottom Line: This comprises the non-covalently-associated extracellular α-DG, that interacts with laminin in the BM, and the transmembrane β-DG, that interacts principally with dystrophin to connect to the actin cytoskeleton.Phylogenetic analysis based on the C-terminal IG2_MAT_NU region identified three distinct clades corresponding to deuterostomes, arthropods, and mollusks/early-diverging metazoans.Whereas the glycosyltransferases that modify α-DG are also present in choanoflagellates, the DG-binding proteins dystrophin and laminin originated at the base of the metazoa, and DG-associated sarcoglycan is restricted to cnidarians and bilaterians.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, Biomedical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus