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Fluorescent proteins function as a prey attractant: experimental evidence from the hydromedusa Olindias formosus and other marine organisms.

Haddock SH, Dunn CW - Biol Open (2015)

Bottom Line: The fish did not respond significantly when treatments did not include fluorescent structures or took place under yellow or white lights, which did not generate fluorescence visible above the ambient light.In situ observations also provided evidence for fluorescent lures as supernormal stimuli in several other marine animals, including the siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti.Our results support the idea that fluorescent structures can serve as prey attractants, thus providing a potential function for GFPs and other fluorescent proteins in a diverse range of organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), 7700 Sandholdt Rd, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9644, USA haddock@mbari.org.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of species in which fluorescence may be functioning for prey attraction. (A-C) The siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti, showing white light view (A) and green fluorescence (B,C), with red illumination (not fluorescence) to show the rest of the body. (D) Bioluminescence emission of the siphonophore Rosacea plicata, with no illumination. Compare with panel G showing the distribution of fluorescence. (E,F) Light and fluorescence of the triplefin blenny Enneapterygius sp., a small tropical species with fluorescent skeletal structures. (G) White illuminated photo of Rosacea showing the fluorescence near the top of the stem and in the gastrozoids, bright enough to see without special blue excitation or filters. (H,I) White light and fluorescence of the non-symbiotic strawberry anemone Corynactis californica, showing the multi-colored fluorescence of its polyps. Scale (width of frame), A: 1.7 cm; B: 1.2 cm; C: 1.3 mm; D: 9.3 cm; E: 8.4 mm; F: 8.6 mm; G: 1.3 cm; H,I: 2.9 cm. (J,K) White light and fluorescence of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus randalli. Other mantis shrimp species have strong fluorescence on their second antenna scale. (L) Cerianthid tube anemone under mixed lighting showing prominent fluorescence in central tentacles. (M-O) The siphonophore Diphyes dispar under three lighting schemes to show morphology and fluorescence associated gastrozooids (feeding polyps). Even in white light without special excitation (M) the fluorescence is visible, and it is enhanced by blue illumination (N,O). Red light in O is external illumination and not fluorescence. (P) Amphipod Cyphocaris showing several types of fluorescence: yellow from bioluminescent structure, blue from chitin, and orange likely from chlorophyll-containing gut contents. (Q) Like the hydromedusa O. formosus used in our experiments, Sarsia tubulosa has fluorescent structures that are not associated with sites of bioluminescence. Scale (width of frame), J,K: 2.9 cm; L: 9 cm; M: 2.6 cm; N: 8 mm; O: 4.7 mm; P: 11 mm; Q: 6 cm. Dots below panel letters represent color of illumination/excitation used for photos: white, blue, red, or none (bioluminescent light from organism only). Yellow bar above dots indicates when a yellow long-pass barrier filter was used.
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BIO012138F6: Examples of species in which fluorescence may be functioning for prey attraction. (A-C) The siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti, showing white light view (A) and green fluorescence (B,C), with red illumination (not fluorescence) to show the rest of the body. (D) Bioluminescence emission of the siphonophore Rosacea plicata, with no illumination. Compare with panel G showing the distribution of fluorescence. (E,F) Light and fluorescence of the triplefin blenny Enneapterygius sp., a small tropical species with fluorescent skeletal structures. (G) White illuminated photo of Rosacea showing the fluorescence near the top of the stem and in the gastrozoids, bright enough to see without special blue excitation or filters. (H,I) White light and fluorescence of the non-symbiotic strawberry anemone Corynactis californica, showing the multi-colored fluorescence of its polyps. Scale (width of frame), A: 1.7 cm; B: 1.2 cm; C: 1.3 mm; D: 9.3 cm; E: 8.4 mm; F: 8.6 mm; G: 1.3 cm; H,I: 2.9 cm. (J,K) White light and fluorescence of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus randalli. Other mantis shrimp species have strong fluorescence on their second antenna scale. (L) Cerianthid tube anemone under mixed lighting showing prominent fluorescence in central tentacles. (M-O) The siphonophore Diphyes dispar under three lighting schemes to show morphology and fluorescence associated gastrozooids (feeding polyps). Even in white light without special excitation (M) the fluorescence is visible, and it is enhanced by blue illumination (N,O). Red light in O is external illumination and not fluorescence. (P) Amphipod Cyphocaris showing several types of fluorescence: yellow from bioluminescent structure, blue from chitin, and orange likely from chlorophyll-containing gut contents. (Q) Like the hydromedusa O. formosus used in our experiments, Sarsia tubulosa has fluorescent structures that are not associated with sites of bioluminescence. Scale (width of frame), J,K: 2.9 cm; L: 9 cm; M: 2.6 cm; N: 8 mm; O: 4.7 mm; P: 11 mm; Q: 6 cm. Dots below panel letters represent color of illumination/excitation used for photos: white, blue, red, or none (bioluminescent light from organism only). Yellow bar above dots indicates when a yellow long-pass barrier filter was used.

Mentions: Observations of live animals revealed several species with fluorescent structures unrelated to bioluminescence or algal symbioses, some noted for the first time. The implications of this are addressed further in the discussion, and the observations are summarized here. The siphonophores Rhizophyza eysenhardti (Fig. 6A-C), Rosacea plicata (Fig. 6G), and Diphyes dispar (Fig. 6M-O) bore fluorescent spots along the stem of the siphosome or on the tentilla themselves. These spots are quite unlike the nectophore- and bract-associated fluorescence of other siphonophores like Lilyopsis fluoracantha (Haddock et al., 2005), in which the fluorescence is considered to be involved in the bioluminescence. While Rhizophysa species are to our knowledge non-luminous, Rosacea species are bioluminescent; however the pattern of luminescence emission (Fig. 6D) which occurs diffusely across the whole body, does not match the fluorescence patterns (Fig. 6G), which are discrete points on the gastrozooids (feeding polyps).Fig. 6.


Fluorescent proteins function as a prey attractant: experimental evidence from the hydromedusa Olindias formosus and other marine organisms.

Haddock SH, Dunn CW - Biol Open (2015)

Examples of species in which fluorescence may be functioning for prey attraction. (A-C) The siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti, showing white light view (A) and green fluorescence (B,C), with red illumination (not fluorescence) to show the rest of the body. (D) Bioluminescence emission of the siphonophore Rosacea plicata, with no illumination. Compare with panel G showing the distribution of fluorescence. (E,F) Light and fluorescence of the triplefin blenny Enneapterygius sp., a small tropical species with fluorescent skeletal structures. (G) White illuminated photo of Rosacea showing the fluorescence near the top of the stem and in the gastrozoids, bright enough to see without special blue excitation or filters. (H,I) White light and fluorescence of the non-symbiotic strawberry anemone Corynactis californica, showing the multi-colored fluorescence of its polyps. Scale (width of frame), A: 1.7 cm; B: 1.2 cm; C: 1.3 mm; D: 9.3 cm; E: 8.4 mm; F: 8.6 mm; G: 1.3 cm; H,I: 2.9 cm. (J,K) White light and fluorescence of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus randalli. Other mantis shrimp species have strong fluorescence on their second antenna scale. (L) Cerianthid tube anemone under mixed lighting showing prominent fluorescence in central tentacles. (M-O) The siphonophore Diphyes dispar under three lighting schemes to show morphology and fluorescence associated gastrozooids (feeding polyps). Even in white light without special excitation (M) the fluorescence is visible, and it is enhanced by blue illumination (N,O). Red light in O is external illumination and not fluorescence. (P) Amphipod Cyphocaris showing several types of fluorescence: yellow from bioluminescent structure, blue from chitin, and orange likely from chlorophyll-containing gut contents. (Q) Like the hydromedusa O. formosus used in our experiments, Sarsia tubulosa has fluorescent structures that are not associated with sites of bioluminescence. Scale (width of frame), J,K: 2.9 cm; L: 9 cm; M: 2.6 cm; N: 8 mm; O: 4.7 mm; P: 11 mm; Q: 6 cm. Dots below panel letters represent color of illumination/excitation used for photos: white, blue, red, or none (bioluminescent light from organism only). Yellow bar above dots indicates when a yellow long-pass barrier filter was used.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582119&req=5

BIO012138F6: Examples of species in which fluorescence may be functioning for prey attraction. (A-C) The siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti, showing white light view (A) and green fluorescence (B,C), with red illumination (not fluorescence) to show the rest of the body. (D) Bioluminescence emission of the siphonophore Rosacea plicata, with no illumination. Compare with panel G showing the distribution of fluorescence. (E,F) Light and fluorescence of the triplefin blenny Enneapterygius sp., a small tropical species with fluorescent skeletal structures. (G) White illuminated photo of Rosacea showing the fluorescence near the top of the stem and in the gastrozoids, bright enough to see without special blue excitation or filters. (H,I) White light and fluorescence of the non-symbiotic strawberry anemone Corynactis californica, showing the multi-colored fluorescence of its polyps. Scale (width of frame), A: 1.7 cm; B: 1.2 cm; C: 1.3 mm; D: 9.3 cm; E: 8.4 mm; F: 8.6 mm; G: 1.3 cm; H,I: 2.9 cm. (J,K) White light and fluorescence of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus randalli. Other mantis shrimp species have strong fluorescence on their second antenna scale. (L) Cerianthid tube anemone under mixed lighting showing prominent fluorescence in central tentacles. (M-O) The siphonophore Diphyes dispar under three lighting schemes to show morphology and fluorescence associated gastrozooids (feeding polyps). Even in white light without special excitation (M) the fluorescence is visible, and it is enhanced by blue illumination (N,O). Red light in O is external illumination and not fluorescence. (P) Amphipod Cyphocaris showing several types of fluorescence: yellow from bioluminescent structure, blue from chitin, and orange likely from chlorophyll-containing gut contents. (Q) Like the hydromedusa O. formosus used in our experiments, Sarsia tubulosa has fluorescent structures that are not associated with sites of bioluminescence. Scale (width of frame), J,K: 2.9 cm; L: 9 cm; M: 2.6 cm; N: 8 mm; O: 4.7 mm; P: 11 mm; Q: 6 cm. Dots below panel letters represent color of illumination/excitation used for photos: white, blue, red, or none (bioluminescent light from organism only). Yellow bar above dots indicates when a yellow long-pass barrier filter was used.
Mentions: Observations of live animals revealed several species with fluorescent structures unrelated to bioluminescence or algal symbioses, some noted for the first time. The implications of this are addressed further in the discussion, and the observations are summarized here. The siphonophores Rhizophyza eysenhardti (Fig. 6A-C), Rosacea plicata (Fig. 6G), and Diphyes dispar (Fig. 6M-O) bore fluorescent spots along the stem of the siphosome or on the tentilla themselves. These spots are quite unlike the nectophore- and bract-associated fluorescence of other siphonophores like Lilyopsis fluoracantha (Haddock et al., 2005), in which the fluorescence is considered to be involved in the bioluminescence. While Rhizophysa species are to our knowledge non-luminous, Rosacea species are bioluminescent; however the pattern of luminescence emission (Fig. 6D) which occurs diffusely across the whole body, does not match the fluorescence patterns (Fig. 6G), which are discrete points on the gastrozooids (feeding polyps).Fig. 6.

Bottom Line: The fish did not respond significantly when treatments did not include fluorescent structures or took place under yellow or white lights, which did not generate fluorescence visible above the ambient light.In situ observations also provided evidence for fluorescent lures as supernormal stimuli in several other marine animals, including the siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti.Our results support the idea that fluorescent structures can serve as prey attractants, thus providing a potential function for GFPs and other fluorescent proteins in a diverse range of organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), 7700 Sandholdt Rd, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9644, USA haddock@mbari.org.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus