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Structural and functional hepatocyte polarity and liver disease.

Gissen P, Arias IM - J. Hepatol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Hepatocyte depolarization frequently occurs but is rarely recognized because hematoxylin-eosin staining does not identify the bile canaliculus.However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood.Here we aim to provide an update on the key factors determining hepatocyte polarity and how it is affected in inherited and acquired diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK; UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address: p.gissen@ucl.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of hepatocyte and columnar epithelial phenotypes. (A) Adjacent hepatocytes form bile canaliculi (green) at their cell-cell contacting domains (blue) and are strengthened by surrounding tight junction belt (yellow). A single hepatocyte can form bile canalicular lumina with three neighbours (BC). Hepatocytes can also have two basal domains that face the adjacent sinusoids. (B) Columnar epithelia feature a central lumen formed by the apical domains of individual cells, which are perpendicular to their cell-cell contacting domains (black) and separated from the latter by tight junctions (yellow). The basal domains are in contact with a basal lamina (adapted with permission from Müsch A. Exp Cell Res, 2014) [153].
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f0005: Comparison of hepatocyte and columnar epithelial phenotypes. (A) Adjacent hepatocytes form bile canaliculi (green) at their cell-cell contacting domains (blue) and are strengthened by surrounding tight junction belt (yellow). A single hepatocyte can form bile canalicular lumina with three neighbours (BC). Hepatocytes can also have two basal domains that face the adjacent sinusoids. (B) Columnar epithelia feature a central lumen formed by the apical domains of individual cells, which are perpendicular to their cell-cell contacting domains (black) and separated from the latter by tight junctions (yellow). The basal domains are in contact with a basal lamina (adapted with permission from Müsch A. Exp Cell Res, 2014) [153].

Mentions: A defining feature of metazoans is the existence of polarized layers of epithelium which give rise to the three dimensional shapes of body parts and types. The formation and maintenance of a polarized epithelium is complex and requires specific cell adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal factors and intracellular trafficking components [1]. These give rise to apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains which separate interior from external environments and permit directional absorption and secretion of proteins and other solutes. Most epithelial cells, such as intestinal and renal tubular cells, are polarized in the plane of the tissue [2]. In contrast, hepatocytes have a unique polarization arrangement in which each of two adjacent cells contributes an apical plasma membrane that form one or more capillary-like structures, the bile canaliculus (BC), which is the smallest branch of the bile ductal system (Fig. 1) [3]. The BC is functionally sealed by tight junctions (TJs) and, with its microvilli, constitutes ∼13% of total hepatocyte plasma membrane [4]. Defects in hepatocyte polarization leads to major pathophysiological consequences.


Structural and functional hepatocyte polarity and liver disease.

Gissen P, Arias IM - J. Hepatol. (2015)

Comparison of hepatocyte and columnar epithelial phenotypes. (A) Adjacent hepatocytes form bile canaliculi (green) at their cell-cell contacting domains (blue) and are strengthened by surrounding tight junction belt (yellow). A single hepatocyte can form bile canalicular lumina with three neighbours (BC). Hepatocytes can also have two basal domains that face the adjacent sinusoids. (B) Columnar epithelia feature a central lumen formed by the apical domains of individual cells, which are perpendicular to their cell-cell contacting domains (black) and separated from the latter by tight junctions (yellow). The basal domains are in contact with a basal lamina (adapted with permission from Müsch A. Exp Cell Res, 2014) [153].
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582071&req=5

f0005: Comparison of hepatocyte and columnar epithelial phenotypes. (A) Adjacent hepatocytes form bile canaliculi (green) at their cell-cell contacting domains (blue) and are strengthened by surrounding tight junction belt (yellow). A single hepatocyte can form bile canalicular lumina with three neighbours (BC). Hepatocytes can also have two basal domains that face the adjacent sinusoids. (B) Columnar epithelia feature a central lumen formed by the apical domains of individual cells, which are perpendicular to their cell-cell contacting domains (black) and separated from the latter by tight junctions (yellow). The basal domains are in contact with a basal lamina (adapted with permission from Müsch A. Exp Cell Res, 2014) [153].
Mentions: A defining feature of metazoans is the existence of polarized layers of epithelium which give rise to the three dimensional shapes of body parts and types. The formation and maintenance of a polarized epithelium is complex and requires specific cell adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal factors and intracellular trafficking components [1]. These give rise to apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains which separate interior from external environments and permit directional absorption and secretion of proteins and other solutes. Most epithelial cells, such as intestinal and renal tubular cells, are polarized in the plane of the tissue [2]. In contrast, hepatocytes have a unique polarization arrangement in which each of two adjacent cells contributes an apical plasma membrane that form one or more capillary-like structures, the bile canaliculus (BC), which is the smallest branch of the bile ductal system (Fig. 1) [3]. The BC is functionally sealed by tight junctions (TJs) and, with its microvilli, constitutes ∼13% of total hepatocyte plasma membrane [4]. Defects in hepatocyte polarization leads to major pathophysiological consequences.

Bottom Line: Hepatocyte depolarization frequently occurs but is rarely recognized because hematoxylin-eosin staining does not identify the bile canaliculus.However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood.Here we aim to provide an update on the key factors determining hepatocyte polarity and how it is affected in inherited and acquired diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK; UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address: p.gissen@ucl.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus