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Occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in plant and animal derived food sources: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sani NA, Odeyemi OA - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096).High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82).It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Safety and Quality Research Group, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Cronobacter species are motile, non-spore forming, Gram negative emerging opportunistic pathogens mostly associated with bacteremia, meningitis, septicemia, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis in infected neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults. Members of the genus Cronobacter are previously associated with powdered infant formula although the main reservoir and routes of contamination are yet to be ascertained. This study therefore aim to summarize occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. from different food related sources. A retrospective systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2008 and 2014 for the occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal and plant related sources was conducted using "Cronobacter isolation", "Cronobacter detection" and "Cronobacter enumeration" as search terms in the following databases: Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with meta-analysis techniques for effect rate and fixed effects was used to explore heterogeneity between the sources. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 916 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 28 articles met inclusion criteria. Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbors the bacteria. The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096). High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82). It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cumulative meta-analysis of prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal originated food samples
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Fig5: Cumulative meta-analysis of prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal originated food samples

Mentions: Publication bias and quality of primary studies are limiting in meta-analysis (Noble 2006). Funnel plots are usually used to graphically assess publication bias in meta-analysis (Gonzales-Barron and Butler 2011b; Soon et al. 2012). This is obtained by plotting standard error against prevalence rate. In our study, publication bias could be observed among the primary studies due to asymmetric nature of the plots. Solid vertical line in the funnel plots represents the summary of prevalence rate derived from fixed-effect meta-analysis while the diagonal lines represent 95 % confidence interval. The cumulative forest plot (Fig. 5) of all the primary studies shows the mean prevalence rate of Cronobacter spp. from animal originated food samples by cumulatively adding one primary study at a time to another. Additionally, there is need for more studies on animal related sources of Cronobacter and the results of the research should be communicated in scientific publications. Some of the factors that can may possibly contribute to asymmetric funnel shape includes insufficient sample size, under reported primary research (Gonzales-Barron and Butler 2011b).Fig. 5


Occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in plant and animal derived food sources: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sani NA, Odeyemi OA - Springerplus (2015)

Cumulative meta-analysis of prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal originated food samples
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582040&req=5

Fig5: Cumulative meta-analysis of prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal originated food samples
Mentions: Publication bias and quality of primary studies are limiting in meta-analysis (Noble 2006). Funnel plots are usually used to graphically assess publication bias in meta-analysis (Gonzales-Barron and Butler 2011b; Soon et al. 2012). This is obtained by plotting standard error against prevalence rate. In our study, publication bias could be observed among the primary studies due to asymmetric nature of the plots. Solid vertical line in the funnel plots represents the summary of prevalence rate derived from fixed-effect meta-analysis while the diagonal lines represent 95 % confidence interval. The cumulative forest plot (Fig. 5) of all the primary studies shows the mean prevalence rate of Cronobacter spp. from animal originated food samples by cumulatively adding one primary study at a time to another. Additionally, there is need for more studies on animal related sources of Cronobacter and the results of the research should be communicated in scientific publications. Some of the factors that can may possibly contribute to asymmetric funnel shape includes insufficient sample size, under reported primary research (Gonzales-Barron and Butler 2011b).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096).High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82).It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Safety and Quality Research Group, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Cronobacter species are motile, non-spore forming, Gram negative emerging opportunistic pathogens mostly associated with bacteremia, meningitis, septicemia, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis in infected neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults. Members of the genus Cronobacter are previously associated with powdered infant formula although the main reservoir and routes of contamination are yet to be ascertained. This study therefore aim to summarize occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. from different food related sources. A retrospective systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2008 and 2014 for the occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal and plant related sources was conducted using "Cronobacter isolation", "Cronobacter detection" and "Cronobacter enumeration" as search terms in the following databases: Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with meta-analysis techniques for effect rate and fixed effects was used to explore heterogeneity between the sources. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 916 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 28 articles met inclusion criteria. Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbors the bacteria. The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096). High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82). It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus