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Occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in plant and animal derived food sources: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sani NA, Odeyemi OA - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096).High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82).It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Safety and Quality Research Group, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Cronobacter species are motile, non-spore forming, Gram negative emerging opportunistic pathogens mostly associated with bacteremia, meningitis, septicemia, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis in infected neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults. Members of the genus Cronobacter are previously associated with powdered infant formula although the main reservoir and routes of contamination are yet to be ascertained. This study therefore aim to summarize occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. from different food related sources. A retrospective systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2008 and 2014 for the occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal and plant related sources was conducted using "Cronobacter isolation", "Cronobacter detection" and "Cronobacter enumeration" as search terms in the following databases: Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with meta-analysis techniques for effect rate and fixed effects was used to explore heterogeneity between the sources. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 916 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 28 articles met inclusion criteria. Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbors the bacteria. The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096). High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82). It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart outlining systematic review of primary studies
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Fig1: Flow chart outlining systematic review of primary studies

Mentions: The primary studies were broadly grouped into plant originated/derived food samples and animal originated/derived food samples. In this study, systematic review of articles on primary studies was able to retrieve 916 articles (Web of Science -Science Direct = 633 and ProQuest = 283 respectively; 757 excluded based on relevance to study objectives while 159 articles were assessed for eligibility. Sixty-eight articles further excluded for inadequate information and 91 articles were eligible for qualitative review. Thereafter, 37 primary studies were excluded after deduplication. Twenty-eight (28) comprising of 12 studies on animal related sources of isolation of Cronobacter and 16 studies on plant related sources of isolation of Cronobacter were included in meta-analysis (Fig. 1). The six group of animal derived food samples in the 12 primary studies are powdered infant formula (1045 samples), follow formula (96 samples), powdered instant products (182 samples), milk powder (175 samples), pork (92 samples) and minced meat (222 samples) while the 10 group of plant derived food samples in the 16 primary studies are herbs (112 samples), spices (54 samples), cereals and cereal products (258 samples), fresh vegetables produce (47 samples), ready to eat foods (128), fruits (41 samples), wheat (13 samples), dry noodles (5 samples), rice flour (12 samples) and confessionary (42 samples) respectively hence, a total of 1812 of animal originated food samples and 644 plant related food samples were analyzed in all the primary studies. However, Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbours the bacteria.Fig. 1


Occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in plant and animal derived food sources: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sani NA, Odeyemi OA - Springerplus (2015)

Flow chart outlining systematic review of primary studies
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582040&req=5

Fig1: Flow chart outlining systematic review of primary studies
Mentions: The primary studies were broadly grouped into plant originated/derived food samples and animal originated/derived food samples. In this study, systematic review of articles on primary studies was able to retrieve 916 articles (Web of Science -Science Direct = 633 and ProQuest = 283 respectively; 757 excluded based on relevance to study objectives while 159 articles were assessed for eligibility. Sixty-eight articles further excluded for inadequate information and 91 articles were eligible for qualitative review. Thereafter, 37 primary studies were excluded after deduplication. Twenty-eight (28) comprising of 12 studies on animal related sources of isolation of Cronobacter and 16 studies on plant related sources of isolation of Cronobacter were included in meta-analysis (Fig. 1). The six group of animal derived food samples in the 12 primary studies are powdered infant formula (1045 samples), follow formula (96 samples), powdered instant products (182 samples), milk powder (175 samples), pork (92 samples) and minced meat (222 samples) while the 10 group of plant derived food samples in the 16 primary studies are herbs (112 samples), spices (54 samples), cereals and cereal products (258 samples), fresh vegetables produce (47 samples), ready to eat foods (128), fruits (41 samples), wheat (13 samples), dry noodles (5 samples), rice flour (12 samples) and confessionary (42 samples) respectively hence, a total of 1812 of animal originated food samples and 644 plant related food samples were analyzed in all the primary studies. However, Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbours the bacteria.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096).High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82).It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Safety and Quality Research Group, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Cronobacter species are motile, non-spore forming, Gram negative emerging opportunistic pathogens mostly associated with bacteremia, meningitis, septicemia, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis in infected neonates, infants and immunocompromised adults. Members of the genus Cronobacter are previously associated with powdered infant formula although the main reservoir and routes of contamination are yet to be ascertained. This study therefore aim to summarize occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. from different food related sources. A retrospective systematic review and meta-analysis of peer reviewed primary studies reported between 2008 and 2014 for the occurrence and prevalence of Cronobacter spp. in animal and plant related sources was conducted using "Cronobacter isolation", "Cronobacter detection" and "Cronobacter enumeration" as search terms in the following databases: Web of Science (Science Direct) and ProQuest. Data extracted from the primary studies were then analyzed with meta-analysis techniques for effect rate and fixed effects was used to explore heterogeneity between the sources. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot. A total of 916 articles were retrieved from the data bases of which 28 articles met inclusion criteria. Cronobacter spp. could only be isolated from 103 (5.7 %) samples of animal related food while 123 (19 %) samples of plant related food samples harbors the bacteria. The result of this study shows that occurrence of Cronobacter was more prevalent in plant related sources with overall prevalence rate of 20.1 % (95 % CI 0.168-0.238) than animal originated sources with overall prevalence rate of 8 % (95 % CI 0.066-0.096). High heterogeneity (I (2) = 84) was observed mostly in plant related sources such as herbs, spices and vegetables compared to animal related sources (I (2) = 82). It could be observed from this study that plant related sources serve as reservoir and contamination routes of Cronobacter spp.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus