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Amino acids in sandal (Santalum album L) with special reference to cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline and sym. homospermidine.

Kuttan R, Panikkar B, Binitha PP - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: Sandal also contains sym. homospermidine which is not present in any other plants till today.Moreover sandal leaves contain γ-glutamyl derivative of the lachrymatory precursor of onion, γ-glutamyl-S-propenyl cysteine superoxide.This review summarizes the studies on the amino acids in sandal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala 680555 India.

ABSTRACT
Sandal (Santalum album L) contains several interesting amino acids and amines which are not seen in other plants. This includes cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline in free form in leaves, flowers and seeds while trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline in bound form. Traces of 3, 4 dehydroproline is also detected in sandal leaves. Biosynthesis of cis-4-hydroxy proline indicates that hydroxylation taken place at proline present in peptidyl form especially bound to glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pyrrolizidine-2-carboxylic acid an interesting isatin positive heterocyclic compound is also present in sandal leaves. Sandal also contains sym. homospermidine which is not present in any other plants till today. Biosynthesis of sym. homospermidine goes by a unique pathway of putrescine oxidation, Schiff base formation, condensation and reduction. Moreover sandal leaves contain γ-glutamyl derivative of the lachrymatory precursor of onion, γ-glutamyl-S-propenyl cysteine superoxide. This review summarizes the studies on the amino acids in sandal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Structure of hydroxyproline
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Fig1: Structure of hydroxyproline

Mentions: Hydroxy proline has two asymmetric carbons and hence can exist in four optically active forms (Fig. 1). Trans-l-hydroxyl proline was first solated from the hydrolyzates of gelatin in 1902 by Fischer (Fischer 1902) and named it as oxypyrolidine-carboxylic acid. Trans 4-hydroxy l proline is present in various collagens like proteins, reticulins, collastromin and elastoidin in dentine protein, horse radish peroxidase actinomycin X0B, sarcina lutea etc. It is also present in the cell wall of several plants (leaves, pericarp and roots) in a bound and is called Extensin as it is needed in the cell wall extension (Lamport 1965). Cis-4-hydroxyl-l-proline was isolated from hydrolyzates of phalloidin, a highly toxic peptide obtained from mushrooms of genus Amanita by Wieland and Witkop. Cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline is present in free state in Santalum album (Radhakrishnan and Giri 1954). It is also present in other Santalum species such as Santalum yassi, Santalum austrocaledonicum, Santalum obtusifolium (Kuttan et al. 1974a, b) as well as in Osyrus arborea W,Thesium himalense Royal and Thesium wightianum wall which are members of Santalaceae family. Excepting these species presence of cis-4-hydroxy proline is not reported in any other plants. In sandal, free hydroxyl proline is distributed in various parts of the tree such as in leaves and pericarp of fruits. The hydroxy proline content varied with season. In the vegetative phase young leaves had maximum content while in reproductive phase flowers and seeds had maximum content of cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline.Fig. 1


Amino acids in sandal (Santalum album L) with special reference to cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline and sym. homospermidine.

Kuttan R, Panikkar B, Binitha PP - Springerplus (2015)

Structure of hydroxyproline
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4582034&req=5

Fig1: Structure of hydroxyproline
Mentions: Hydroxy proline has two asymmetric carbons and hence can exist in four optically active forms (Fig. 1). Trans-l-hydroxyl proline was first solated from the hydrolyzates of gelatin in 1902 by Fischer (Fischer 1902) and named it as oxypyrolidine-carboxylic acid. Trans 4-hydroxy l proline is present in various collagens like proteins, reticulins, collastromin and elastoidin in dentine protein, horse radish peroxidase actinomycin X0B, sarcina lutea etc. It is also present in the cell wall of several plants (leaves, pericarp and roots) in a bound and is called Extensin as it is needed in the cell wall extension (Lamport 1965). Cis-4-hydroxyl-l-proline was isolated from hydrolyzates of phalloidin, a highly toxic peptide obtained from mushrooms of genus Amanita by Wieland and Witkop. Cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline is present in free state in Santalum album (Radhakrishnan and Giri 1954). It is also present in other Santalum species such as Santalum yassi, Santalum austrocaledonicum, Santalum obtusifolium (Kuttan et al. 1974a, b) as well as in Osyrus arborea W,Thesium himalense Royal and Thesium wightianum wall which are members of Santalaceae family. Excepting these species presence of cis-4-hydroxy proline is not reported in any other plants. In sandal, free hydroxyl proline is distributed in various parts of the tree such as in leaves and pericarp of fruits. The hydroxy proline content varied with season. In the vegetative phase young leaves had maximum content while in reproductive phase flowers and seeds had maximum content of cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Sandal also contains sym. homospermidine which is not present in any other plants till today.Moreover sandal leaves contain γ-glutamyl derivative of the lachrymatory precursor of onion, γ-glutamyl-S-propenyl cysteine superoxide.This review summarizes the studies on the amino acids in sandal.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Kerala 680555 India.

ABSTRACT
Sandal (Santalum album L) contains several interesting amino acids and amines which are not seen in other plants. This includes cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline in free form in leaves, flowers and seeds while trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline in bound form. Traces of 3, 4 dehydroproline is also detected in sandal leaves. Biosynthesis of cis-4-hydroxy proline indicates that hydroxylation taken place at proline present in peptidyl form especially bound to glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pyrrolizidine-2-carboxylic acid an interesting isatin positive heterocyclic compound is also present in sandal leaves. Sandal also contains sym. homospermidine which is not present in any other plants till today. Biosynthesis of sym. homospermidine goes by a unique pathway of putrescine oxidation, Schiff base formation, condensation and reduction. Moreover sandal leaves contain γ-glutamyl derivative of the lachrymatory precursor of onion, γ-glutamyl-S-propenyl cysteine superoxide. This review summarizes the studies on the amino acids in sandal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus