Limits...
Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

Nichols TA, Anderson TW, Širović A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution.In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels.These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Coastal and Marine Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cortisol response to different noise levels of playback of recorded boat noise.Linear relationship between the noise level of playback of recorded boat noise and the cortisol response of juvenile giant kelpfish. The six treatments were created through playback of multiple boat noise recordings made in the field at each of six distances (4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 m) from the boat with noise level decreasing as distance increased. Each symbol represents the mean cortisol concentration of the three fish used per replicate (n = 2 for each noise level).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581866&req=5

pone.0139157.g004: Cortisol response to different noise levels of playback of recorded boat noise.Linear relationship between the noise level of playback of recorded boat noise and the cortisol response of juvenile giant kelpfish. The six treatments were created through playback of multiple boat noise recordings made in the field at each of six distances (4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 m) from the boat with noise level decreasing as distance increased. Each symbol represents the mean cortisol concentration of the three fish used per replicate (n = 2 for each noise level).

Mentions: Cortisol response of giant kelpfish decreased linearly with the noise level of increased noise treatments (r2 = 0.58, F1,10 = 14.04, p = 0.004, Fig 4; S4 Data). Analyzed and adjusted playback of sound treatments into experimental aquaria produced spectra that are similar to those obtained from field recordings (Fig 2; S1–S3 Figs), although it is not possible for sounds reproduced in aquaria to perfectly match those obtained in the field. Some differences that can be observed include a larger frequency range of peak SPL for playback of boat noise recorded at a distance of 20 m and a less dynamic spectrum for playback of recorded natural sounds when these are compared to the original field recordings (Fig 2). For field recordings of boat noise taken from 4 and 6 m the peak SPL was close to 50 Hz, but for all greater distances the peak occurred between 200–400 Hz (S1 Fig). Laboratory playback of these recordings all showed peak SPLs between 200–400 Hz due to the high-pass filter that was necessary for recordings to play within the specifications of the speaker (S2 Fig).


Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

Nichols TA, Anderson TW, Širović A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cortisol response to different noise levels of playback of recorded boat noise.Linear relationship between the noise level of playback of recorded boat noise and the cortisol response of juvenile giant kelpfish. The six treatments were created through playback of multiple boat noise recordings made in the field at each of six distances (4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 m) from the boat with noise level decreasing as distance increased. Each symbol represents the mean cortisol concentration of the three fish used per replicate (n = 2 for each noise level).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581866&req=5

pone.0139157.g004: Cortisol response to different noise levels of playback of recorded boat noise.Linear relationship between the noise level of playback of recorded boat noise and the cortisol response of juvenile giant kelpfish. The six treatments were created through playback of multiple boat noise recordings made in the field at each of six distances (4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 m) from the boat with noise level decreasing as distance increased. Each symbol represents the mean cortisol concentration of the three fish used per replicate (n = 2 for each noise level).
Mentions: Cortisol response of giant kelpfish decreased linearly with the noise level of increased noise treatments (r2 = 0.58, F1,10 = 14.04, p = 0.004, Fig 4; S4 Data). Analyzed and adjusted playback of sound treatments into experimental aquaria produced spectra that are similar to those obtained from field recordings (Fig 2; S1–S3 Figs), although it is not possible for sounds reproduced in aquaria to perfectly match those obtained in the field. Some differences that can be observed include a larger frequency range of peak SPL for playback of boat noise recorded at a distance of 20 m and a less dynamic spectrum for playback of recorded natural sounds when these are compared to the original field recordings (Fig 2). For field recordings of boat noise taken from 4 and 6 m the peak SPL was close to 50 Hz, but for all greater distances the peak occurred between 200–400 Hz (S1 Fig). Laboratory playback of these recordings all showed peak SPLs between 200–400 Hz due to the high-pass filter that was necessary for recordings to play within the specifications of the speaker (S2 Fig).

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution.In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels.These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Coastal and Marine Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus