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Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

Nichols TA, Anderson TW, Širović A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution.In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels.These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Coastal and Marine Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequency spectra for example field and laboratory recordings.Sound pressure levels for field recordings and playback of recordings into aquaria for laboratory treatments (Hanning window, FFT length: 48,000, 50% overlap). Solid lines show the spectra for field recordings: solid red, 4 m from accelerating boat; solid grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; solid blue, natural sounds of an eelgrass bed. Dotted lines show the spectra for recordings of band-pass filtered (100–2,000 Hz) playback of field recordings into laboratory aquaria: dotted red, 4 m from accelerating boat; dotted grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; dotted blue, natural sound of an eelgrass bed. The spectrum for ambient sound of aquaria is shown by the dotted black line. The shaded region denotes the low frequencies (0–100 Hz) that were minimized for laboratory playback. All spectra represent an average of multiple recordings for each type.
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pone.0139157.g002: Frequency spectra for example field and laboratory recordings.Sound pressure levels for field recordings and playback of recordings into aquaria for laboratory treatments (Hanning window, FFT length: 48,000, 50% overlap). Solid lines show the spectra for field recordings: solid red, 4 m from accelerating boat; solid grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; solid blue, natural sounds of an eelgrass bed. Dotted lines show the spectra for recordings of band-pass filtered (100–2,000 Hz) playback of field recordings into laboratory aquaria: dotted red, 4 m from accelerating boat; dotted grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; dotted blue, natural sound of an eelgrass bed. The spectrum for ambient sound of aquaria is shown by the dotted black line. The shaded region denotes the low frequencies (0–100 Hz) that were minimized for laboratory playback. All spectra represent an average of multiple recordings for each type.

Mentions: Boat noise recordings were made in the vicinity of a boat with an outboard boat engine (175 hp, Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.) in San Diego Bay. Multiple recordings of noise were taken at each of several distances from the hydrophone to the boat engine (4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 m), which represented a range of noise levels from very loud at 4 m to only moderately audible at 20 m (Fig 2; S1 Fig). Water column depth was 6–10 m and the hydrophone was positioned at a depth of 1.5 m. For each recording, the boat started with the engine at the measured distance from the hydrophone and then accelerated away from the hydrophone to allow precise measurements of the boat engine starting distance. At least three separate recordings were obtained for each distance for use in laboratory experiments to account for any variations in acceleration rate of the boat and ambient noise during recordings. For control treatments, natural ambient sound was recorded from eelgrass beds where giant kelpfish were collected to represent the acoustic environment that these fish would experience in the absence of anthropogenic noise (Fig 2). These recordings were made in a shallow eelgrass bed in Mission Bay at Mariner’s Basin (32°45ʹ55.21ʺN, 117°14ʹ47.60ʺW). Recordings were taken from several locations of the eelgrass bed at depths ranging from 0.5–1.5 m. The area was chosen for low human activity, and no boating or other activities were observed in the vicinity of the eelgrass bed during recordings. These recordings were dominated by the sounds of snapping shrimp (Alpheus spp.) along with various other sounds, likely produced by invertebrates.


Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

Nichols TA, Anderson TW, Širović A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Frequency spectra for example field and laboratory recordings.Sound pressure levels for field recordings and playback of recordings into aquaria for laboratory treatments (Hanning window, FFT length: 48,000, 50% overlap). Solid lines show the spectra for field recordings: solid red, 4 m from accelerating boat; solid grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; solid blue, natural sounds of an eelgrass bed. Dotted lines show the spectra for recordings of band-pass filtered (100–2,000 Hz) playback of field recordings into laboratory aquaria: dotted red, 4 m from accelerating boat; dotted grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; dotted blue, natural sound of an eelgrass bed. The spectrum for ambient sound of aquaria is shown by the dotted black line. The shaded region denotes the low frequencies (0–100 Hz) that were minimized for laboratory playback. All spectra represent an average of multiple recordings for each type.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581866&req=5

pone.0139157.g002: Frequency spectra for example field and laboratory recordings.Sound pressure levels for field recordings and playback of recordings into aquaria for laboratory treatments (Hanning window, FFT length: 48,000, 50% overlap). Solid lines show the spectra for field recordings: solid red, 4 m from accelerating boat; solid grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; solid blue, natural sounds of an eelgrass bed. Dotted lines show the spectra for recordings of band-pass filtered (100–2,000 Hz) playback of field recordings into laboratory aquaria: dotted red, 4 m from accelerating boat; dotted grey, 20 m from accelerating boat; dotted blue, natural sound of an eelgrass bed. The spectrum for ambient sound of aquaria is shown by the dotted black line. The shaded region denotes the low frequencies (0–100 Hz) that were minimized for laboratory playback. All spectra represent an average of multiple recordings for each type.
Mentions: Boat noise recordings were made in the vicinity of a boat with an outboard boat engine (175 hp, Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd.) in San Diego Bay. Multiple recordings of noise were taken at each of several distances from the hydrophone to the boat engine (4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 m), which represented a range of noise levels from very loud at 4 m to only moderately audible at 20 m (Fig 2; S1 Fig). Water column depth was 6–10 m and the hydrophone was positioned at a depth of 1.5 m. For each recording, the boat started with the engine at the measured distance from the hydrophone and then accelerated away from the hydrophone to allow precise measurements of the boat engine starting distance. At least three separate recordings were obtained for each distance for use in laboratory experiments to account for any variations in acceleration rate of the boat and ambient noise during recordings. For control treatments, natural ambient sound was recorded from eelgrass beds where giant kelpfish were collected to represent the acoustic environment that these fish would experience in the absence of anthropogenic noise (Fig 2). These recordings were made in a shallow eelgrass bed in Mission Bay at Mariner’s Basin (32°45ʹ55.21ʺN, 117°14ʹ47.60ʺW). Recordings were taken from several locations of the eelgrass bed at depths ranging from 0.5–1.5 m. The area was chosen for low human activity, and no boating or other activities were observed in the vicinity of the eelgrass bed during recordings. These recordings were dominated by the sounds of snapping shrimp (Alpheus spp.) along with various other sounds, likely produced by invertebrates.

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution.In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels.These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Coastal and Marine Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus