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Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

Nichols TA, Anderson TW, Širović A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution.In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels.These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Coastal and Marine Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Side view schematic diagram of experimental aquaria setup.Setup for a single replicate used in stress response experiments using an aquarium containing three juvenile giant kelpfish with an underwater speaker suspended from above and artificial eelgrass habitat (fish illustration by L.G. Allen).
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pone.0139157.g001: Side view schematic diagram of experimental aquaria setup.Setup for a single replicate used in stress response experiments using an aquarium containing three juvenile giant kelpfish with an underwater speaker suspended from above and artificial eelgrass habitat (fish illustration by L.G. Allen).

Mentions: Experimental aquaria constructed of glass (width: 30 cm, length: 75 cm, height: 30 cm, 67 L) were used for stress response experiments and arranged in an insulated environmentally controlled room to minimize external noise (Fig 1). Each aquarium contained artificial eelgrass (100 shoots per m2) to simulate a low-density eelgrass habitat. Fish were provided with habitat because the absence of shelter may influence stress-related responses [42], which are likely to be relevant for fishes that are strongly associated with habitat structure. Water temperature in experimental aquaria was recorded at the start of each acclimation period and at the conclusion of each trial to ensure that it remained within ~ 1°C of housing conditions. Timed lighting was provided in the room containing experimental aquaria, allowing fish to remain on a natural light-dark cycle after being transferred from housing tanks. Each aquarium was equipped with an underwater speaker (UW-30, flat frequency response: 0.1–10,000 Hz, Electro-voice, Lincoln, NE, USA) powered by an amplifier (40W Portable Amplifier; frequency response: ~ 40–20,000 Hz, Radio Shack, Fort Worth, TX, USA). Speakers were suspended from the top of aquaria and submerged below the water surface to exclude vibrations caused by speaker contact with aquarium surfaces. All sound files used were band-pass filtered between 100–2000 Hz in order to play within speaker specifications and to minimize resonant frequencies within aquaria [39].


Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

Nichols TA, Anderson TW, Širović A - PLoS ONE (2015)

Side view schematic diagram of experimental aquaria setup.Setup for a single replicate used in stress response experiments using an aquarium containing three juvenile giant kelpfish with an underwater speaker suspended from above and artificial eelgrass habitat (fish illustration by L.G. Allen).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581866&req=5

pone.0139157.g001: Side view schematic diagram of experimental aquaria setup.Setup for a single replicate used in stress response experiments using an aquarium containing three juvenile giant kelpfish with an underwater speaker suspended from above and artificial eelgrass habitat (fish illustration by L.G. Allen).
Mentions: Experimental aquaria constructed of glass (width: 30 cm, length: 75 cm, height: 30 cm, 67 L) were used for stress response experiments and arranged in an insulated environmentally controlled room to minimize external noise (Fig 1). Each aquarium contained artificial eelgrass (100 shoots per m2) to simulate a low-density eelgrass habitat. Fish were provided with habitat because the absence of shelter may influence stress-related responses [42], which are likely to be relevant for fishes that are strongly associated with habitat structure. Water temperature in experimental aquaria was recorded at the start of each acclimation period and at the conclusion of each trial to ensure that it remained within ~ 1°C of housing conditions. Timed lighting was provided in the room containing experimental aquaria, allowing fish to remain on a natural light-dark cycle after being transferred from housing tanks. Each aquarium was equipped with an underwater speaker (UW-30, flat frequency response: 0.1–10,000 Hz, Electro-voice, Lincoln, NE, USA) powered by an amplifier (40W Portable Amplifier; frequency response: ~ 40–20,000 Hz, Radio Shack, Fort Worth, TX, USA). Speakers were suspended from the top of aquaria and submerged below the water surface to exclude vibrations caused by speaker contact with aquarium surfaces. All sound files used were band-pass filtered between 100–2000 Hz in order to play within speaker specifications and to minimize resonant frequencies within aquaria [39].

Bottom Line: Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution.In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels.These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology and Coastal and Marine Institute, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus