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Vaccine Science Diplomacy: Expanding Capacity to Prevent Emerging and Neglected Tropical Diseases Arising from Islamic State (IS)--Held Territories.

Hotez PJ - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Science Envoy Program, Department of State, Washington, D. C., United States of America; Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America; James A. Baker III Institute of Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
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War and the ensuing health system breakdowns in the Islamic State (IS)–occupied Syria and Iraq significantly increase the risk of a new wave of infectious disease epidemics in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)... Proactive engagement to enable health system capacity and resilience—including expanding immunization programs and building biotechnology capacity for vaccines that specifically target diseases in the region—would help minimize the impact if and when outbreaks occur... The latest example is the collapsed health systems of post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone that were unable to cope with an Ebola epidemic that infected more than 20,000 people and caused approximately 10,000 deaths by the early part of 2015... A comparable situation associated with poverty and conflict may now be unfolding in the MENA... Anticipatory action plans could include expansion of public health emergency preparedness through the United States—launched Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)... Launched in February 2014, the GHSA has an overarching mission to prevent and reduce the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks by detecting threats early and providing for rapid and multisectoral responses... Given the urgent need to develop and possibly stockpile new vaccines for the major NTDs emerging out of MENA, there are opportunities for “vaccine science diplomacy,” analogous to events of the post-Sputnik era of the Cold War, when an American—Soviet collaboration led to final development and testing of the Sabin polio vaccine... As a potential alternative, there are approximately a half-dozen international non-profit vaccine product development partnerships (PDPs), which use industry practices to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and NTDs... Morocco ranks 129 out of 187 in terms of its human development index and is categorized by the United Nations Development Programme as a medium development country... Despite a significant level of extreme poverty, the country was one of the first to achieve the elimination of trachoma, a major NTD... As a consequence, the MENA region is highly vulnerable to regional neglected and emerging infections, including MERS, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, scabies, and other NTDs, which may not be targeted by multinational pharmaceutical companies... Thus, in addition to the key role of US and international PDPs described here, the US government could also enhance vaccine development activities in the GHSA by incorporating and augmenting resources and talent through its Departments of State (e.g., Office of Global Health Diplomacy and US Agency for International Development), Health and Human Services (e.g., National Institutes of Health and Office of Global Affairs), and Defense (e.g., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research), among others... Collaboration, both regionally and with the broader international community, to enhance capacity in the MENA to develop vaccines is an important means to develop sustainable health system structures to support health resilience... Collaboration between the US and the international community on vaccines is already a key element of the GHSA; we should maintain momentum and look for new, willing partners in these efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Syria and Iraq 2014-onward war map—occupied territories.By Wikimedia Commons user BlueHypercane761. Available here: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Syria_and_Iraq_2014-onward_War_map.png.
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pntd.0003852.g001: Syria and Iraq 2014-onward war map—occupied territories.By Wikimedia Commons user BlueHypercane761. Available here: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Syria_and_Iraq_2014-onward_War_map.png.

Mentions: Superimposed on an already worrisome threat from tropical infections are the recent advances of the Islamic State (IS) in Iraq, Syria, and Libya, and Yemen (Fig 1). Currently the IS of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) is considered a pseudo-state with an estimated 30,000 fighters, together with a sophisticated command structure but with minimal to nonexistent health systems [16], while according to a recent report, Yemen’s health system is “moving from a crisis to a disaster” [17].


Vaccine Science Diplomacy: Expanding Capacity to Prevent Emerging and Neglected Tropical Diseases Arising from Islamic State (IS)--Held Territories.

Hotez PJ - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Syria and Iraq 2014-onward war map—occupied territories.By Wikimedia Commons user BlueHypercane761. Available here: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Syria_and_Iraq_2014-onward_War_map.png.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581861&req=5

pntd.0003852.g001: Syria and Iraq 2014-onward war map—occupied territories.By Wikimedia Commons user BlueHypercane761. Available here: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Syria_and_Iraq_2014-onward_War_map.png.
Mentions: Superimposed on an already worrisome threat from tropical infections are the recent advances of the Islamic State (IS) in Iraq, Syria, and Libya, and Yemen (Fig 1). Currently the IS of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) is considered a pseudo-state with an estimated 30,000 fighters, together with a sophisticated command structure but with minimal to nonexistent health systems [16], while according to a recent report, Yemen’s health system is “moving from a crisis to a disaster” [17].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Science Envoy Program, Department of State, Washington, D. C., United States of America; Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America; Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, United States of America; James A. Baker III Institute of Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

War and the ensuing health system breakdowns in the Islamic State (IS)–occupied Syria and Iraq significantly increase the risk of a new wave of infectious disease epidemics in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)... Proactive engagement to enable health system capacity and resilience—including expanding immunization programs and building biotechnology capacity for vaccines that specifically target diseases in the region—would help minimize the impact if and when outbreaks occur... The latest example is the collapsed health systems of post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone that were unable to cope with an Ebola epidemic that infected more than 20,000 people and caused approximately 10,000 deaths by the early part of 2015... A comparable situation associated with poverty and conflict may now be unfolding in the MENA... Anticipatory action plans could include expansion of public health emergency preparedness through the United States—launched Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)... Launched in February 2014, the GHSA has an overarching mission to prevent and reduce the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks by detecting threats early and providing for rapid and multisectoral responses... Given the urgent need to develop and possibly stockpile new vaccines for the major NTDs emerging out of MENA, there are opportunities for “vaccine science diplomacy,” analogous to events of the post-Sputnik era of the Cold War, when an American—Soviet collaboration led to final development and testing of the Sabin polio vaccine... As a potential alternative, there are approximately a half-dozen international non-profit vaccine product development partnerships (PDPs), which use industry practices to develop new vaccines for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and NTDs... Morocco ranks 129 out of 187 in terms of its human development index and is categorized by the United Nations Development Programme as a medium development country... Despite a significant level of extreme poverty, the country was one of the first to achieve the elimination of trachoma, a major NTD... As a consequence, the MENA region is highly vulnerable to regional neglected and emerging infections, including MERS, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, scabies, and other NTDs, which may not be targeted by multinational pharmaceutical companies... Thus, in addition to the key role of US and international PDPs described here, the US government could also enhance vaccine development activities in the GHSA by incorporating and augmenting resources and talent through its Departments of State (e.g., Office of Global Health Diplomacy and US Agency for International Development), Health and Human Services (e.g., National Institutes of Health and Office of Global Affairs), and Defense (e.g., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research), among others... Collaboration, both regionally and with the broader international community, to enhance capacity in the MENA to develop vaccines is an important means to develop sustainable health system structures to support health resilience... Collaboration between the US and the international community on vaccines is already a key element of the GHSA; we should maintain momentum and look for new, willing partners in these efforts.

No MeSH data available.