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Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia.

Cho YS, Cho JH, Shin BN, Cho GS, Kim IH, Park JH, Ahn JH, Ohk TG, Cho BR, Kim YM, Hong S, Won MH, Lee JC - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In the ischemia‑operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post‑ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia‑operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected.Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post‑ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post‑ischemia.In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia‑reperfusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 200‑701, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham‑operated group, ischemia‑operated group, IPC + sham‑operated group and IPC + ischemia‑operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia‑operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post‑ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia‑operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post‑ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post‑ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia‑operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham‑group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia‑reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia.

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CV histochemical staining in the CA1 region of the ischemia (left two columns) and IPC + ischemia (right two columns) groups at (A–D) sham and (E–H) 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion. In the ischemia group, few CV+ cells (arrows) were observed in the SP 5 days post-ischemia, whereas CV+ cells were abundant (white asterisk) in the SP of the IPC + ischemia group. Scale bar=800 µm. (A, C, E, G) and 50 µm. (B, D, F, H). CV, Cresyl violet; SP, stratum pyramidale; DG, dentate gyrus; SO, stratum oriens; SR, stratum radiatum.
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f1-mmr-12-04-4939: CV histochemical staining in the CA1 region of the ischemia (left two columns) and IPC + ischemia (right two columns) groups at (A–D) sham and (E–H) 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion. In the ischemia group, few CV+ cells (arrows) were observed in the SP 5 days post-ischemia, whereas CV+ cells were abundant (white asterisk) in the SP of the IPC + ischemia group. Scale bar=800 µm. (A, C, E, G) and 50 µm. (B, D, F, H). CV, Cresyl violet; SP, stratum pyramidale; DG, dentate gyrus; SO, stratum oriens; SR, stratum radiatum.

Mentions: The present study examined whether IPC was associated with an increase in neuronal survival in the hippocampal CA1 region following ischemia. In the sham group, the CV+ cells were readily observed in all subregions of the hippocampus (Fig. 1A and B). Neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) were relatively large and pyramid-like or round in shape. In the IPC + sham group, the CA1 pyramidal cells were well stained with CV (Fig. 1C and D). At 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion, the number of CV+ cells in the sham group was significantly decreased in the SP of the CA1 region, but not the CA2/3 region, compared with those of the ischemia group (Fig. 1E). The damaged cells were shrunken and contained dark and polygonal nuclei (Fig. 1F).


Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia.

Cho YS, Cho JH, Shin BN, Cho GS, Kim IH, Park JH, Ahn JH, Ohk TG, Cho BR, Kim YM, Hong S, Won MH, Lee JC - Mol Med Rep (2015)

CV histochemical staining in the CA1 region of the ischemia (left two columns) and IPC + ischemia (right two columns) groups at (A–D) sham and (E–H) 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion. In the ischemia group, few CV+ cells (arrows) were observed in the SP 5 days post-ischemia, whereas CV+ cells were abundant (white asterisk) in the SP of the IPC + ischemia group. Scale bar=800 µm. (A, C, E, G) and 50 µm. (B, D, F, H). CV, Cresyl violet; SP, stratum pyramidale; DG, dentate gyrus; SO, stratum oriens; SR, stratum radiatum.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581829&req=5

f1-mmr-12-04-4939: CV histochemical staining in the CA1 region of the ischemia (left two columns) and IPC + ischemia (right two columns) groups at (A–D) sham and (E–H) 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion. In the ischemia group, few CV+ cells (arrows) were observed in the SP 5 days post-ischemia, whereas CV+ cells were abundant (white asterisk) in the SP of the IPC + ischemia group. Scale bar=800 µm. (A, C, E, G) and 50 µm. (B, D, F, H). CV, Cresyl violet; SP, stratum pyramidale; DG, dentate gyrus; SO, stratum oriens; SR, stratum radiatum.
Mentions: The present study examined whether IPC was associated with an increase in neuronal survival in the hippocampal CA1 region following ischemia. In the sham group, the CV+ cells were readily observed in all subregions of the hippocampus (Fig. 1A and B). Neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) were relatively large and pyramid-like or round in shape. In the IPC + sham group, the CA1 pyramidal cells were well stained with CV (Fig. 1C and D). At 5 days post-ischemia-reperfusion, the number of CV+ cells in the sham group was significantly decreased in the SP of the CA1 region, but not the CA2/3 region, compared with those of the ischemia group (Fig. 1E). The damaged cells were shrunken and contained dark and polygonal nuclei (Fig. 1F).

Bottom Line: In the ischemia‑operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post‑ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia‑operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected.Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post‑ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post‑ischemia.In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia‑reperfusion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 200‑701, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham‑operated group, ischemia‑operated group, IPC + sham‑operated group and IPC + ischemia‑operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia‑operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post‑ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia‑operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post‑ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post‑ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia‑operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham‑group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia‑reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus