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Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Teng LH, Ahmad M, Ng WT, Sabaratnam S, Rasan MI, Parhar I, Khoo AS - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study.Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells.In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH‑receptors (GnRH‑R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH‑R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC‑derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH‑R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH‑R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti‑proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination.

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Effects of GnRH and GnRH agonists on the proliferation of NPC/HK1 cells, determined using a an MTS assay. The cells were cultured and treated with (A) 10−10 M GnRH, (B), 10−10 M triptorelin or (C) 10−10 M leuprolide (D). (A) Treatment with GnRH significantly decreased the proliferation of HK1 cells. (B) HK1 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited after 48 h of treatment with GnRH at 10−10 M. (C and D) Triptorelin and leuprolide GnRH agonists exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects on the HK1 cells. The experiments were performed in triplicate. At least three independent experiments revealed similar results, with representative results presented. *P<0.05, compared with the-control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; MTS,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium.
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f3-mmr-12-04-4909: Effects of GnRH and GnRH agonists on the proliferation of NPC/HK1 cells, determined using a an MTS assay. The cells were cultured and treated with (A) 10−10 M GnRH, (B), 10−10 M triptorelin or (C) 10−10 M leuprolide (D). (A) Treatment with GnRH significantly decreased the proliferation of HK1 cells. (B) HK1 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited after 48 h of treatment with GnRH at 10−10 M. (C and D) Triptorelin and leuprolide GnRH agonists exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects on the HK1 cells. The experiments were performed in triplicate. At least three independent experiments revealed similar results, with representative results presented. *P<0.05, compared with the-control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; MTS,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium.

Mentions: An MTS assay was used to investigate the effect of GnRH on the viability of the NPC/HK1 cells. The cells were cultured and treated with GnRH, leuprolide or triptorelin at graded concentrations (10−12–10−9 M) and assessed with MTS for up to 6 days. GnRH, at nanomolar concentrations (10−9–10−12 M) significantly inhibited the growth of the cultured cells following 2, 4 and 6 days of treatment (Fig. 3A and B). The maximum growth inhibition was reached with 10−9 M and 10−10 M GnRH. Similar results were obtained with GnRH analogues (Fig. 3C and D).


Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Teng LH, Ahmad M, Ng WT, Sabaratnam S, Rasan MI, Parhar I, Khoo AS - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Effects of GnRH and GnRH agonists on the proliferation of NPC/HK1 cells, determined using a an MTS assay. The cells were cultured and treated with (A) 10−10 M GnRH, (B), 10−10 M triptorelin or (C) 10−10 M leuprolide (D). (A) Treatment with GnRH significantly decreased the proliferation of HK1 cells. (B) HK1 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited after 48 h of treatment with GnRH at 10−10 M. (C and D) Triptorelin and leuprolide GnRH agonists exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects on the HK1 cells. The experiments were performed in triplicate. At least three independent experiments revealed similar results, with representative results presented. *P<0.05, compared with the-control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; MTS,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581822&req=5

f3-mmr-12-04-4909: Effects of GnRH and GnRH agonists on the proliferation of NPC/HK1 cells, determined using a an MTS assay. The cells were cultured and treated with (A) 10−10 M GnRH, (B), 10−10 M triptorelin or (C) 10−10 M leuprolide (D). (A) Treatment with GnRH significantly decreased the proliferation of HK1 cells. (B) HK1 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited after 48 h of treatment with GnRH at 10−10 M. (C and D) Triptorelin and leuprolide GnRH agonists exhibited significant anti-proliferative effects on the HK1 cells. The experiments were performed in triplicate. At least three independent experiments revealed similar results, with representative results presented. *P<0.05, compared with the-control. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; MTS,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium.
Mentions: An MTS assay was used to investigate the effect of GnRH on the viability of the NPC/HK1 cells. The cells were cultured and treated with GnRH, leuprolide or triptorelin at graded concentrations (10−12–10−9 M) and assessed with MTS for up to 6 days. GnRH, at nanomolar concentrations (10−9–10−12 M) significantly inhibited the growth of the cultured cells following 2, 4 and 6 days of treatment (Fig. 3A and B). The maximum growth inhibition was reached with 10−9 M and 10−10 M GnRH. Similar results were obtained with GnRH analogues (Fig. 3C and D).

Bottom Line: GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study.Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells.In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH‑receptors (GnRH‑R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH‑R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC‑derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH‑R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH‑R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti‑proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus