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Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Teng LH, Ahmad M, Ng WT, Sabaratnam S, Rasan MI, Parhar I, Khoo AS - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study.Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells.In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH‑receptors (GnRH‑R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH‑R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC‑derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH‑R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH‑R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti‑proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

GnRH induces a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in NPC cells. Live cell calcium imaging revealed a rapid increase in ionized calcium concentration following treatment of the HK1 cells with GnRH. The fluorescence intensities of cells treated with (A) GnRH and (B) vehicle control (water) were measured. (C) A total of 10 cells and one non-cell background (circled) were selected for measurement of the fluorescence intensities. The average increase in fluorescence intensity (D) was significantly higher in cells treated with GnRH than in the cells treated with the vehicle control (P<0.05). Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Flat lines in A and B represent the intensity changes for the non-cell areas. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone.
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f2-mmr-12-04-4909: GnRH induces a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in NPC cells. Live cell calcium imaging revealed a rapid increase in ionized calcium concentration following treatment of the HK1 cells with GnRH. The fluorescence intensities of cells treated with (A) GnRH and (B) vehicle control (water) were measured. (C) A total of 10 cells and one non-cell background (circled) were selected for measurement of the fluorescence intensities. The average increase in fluorescence intensity (D) was significantly higher in cells treated with GnRH than in the cells treated with the vehicle control (P<0.05). Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Flat lines in A and B represent the intensity changes for the non-cell areas. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone.

Mentions: Following the addition of GnRH, the fluorescence intensity of the HK1 cells increased rapidly (Fig. 2A). The fluorescence intensities of the untreated cells and vehicle control-treated cells (Fig. 2B) were determined for comparison. The cells, which were treated with GnRH exhibited a significantly higher increase in fluorescence intensity, compared with the cells in the vehicle control group (P<0.05; Fig. 2C and D). These data suggested that transient elevation of ionized calcium concentration occurred when the HK1 cells were treated with GnRH, thus suggesting that the hormone induced calcium signalling in the NPC cells.


Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Teng LH, Ahmad M, Ng WT, Sabaratnam S, Rasan MI, Parhar I, Khoo AS - Mol Med Rep (2015)

GnRH induces a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in NPC cells. Live cell calcium imaging revealed a rapid increase in ionized calcium concentration following treatment of the HK1 cells with GnRH. The fluorescence intensities of cells treated with (A) GnRH and (B) vehicle control (water) were measured. (C) A total of 10 cells and one non-cell background (circled) were selected for measurement of the fluorescence intensities. The average increase in fluorescence intensity (D) was significantly higher in cells treated with GnRH than in the cells treated with the vehicle control (P<0.05). Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Flat lines in A and B represent the intensity changes for the non-cell areas. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581822&req=5

f2-mmr-12-04-4909: GnRH induces a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in NPC cells. Live cell calcium imaging revealed a rapid increase in ionized calcium concentration following treatment of the HK1 cells with GnRH. The fluorescence intensities of cells treated with (A) GnRH and (B) vehicle control (water) were measured. (C) A total of 10 cells and one non-cell background (circled) were selected for measurement of the fluorescence intensities. The average increase in fluorescence intensity (D) was significantly higher in cells treated with GnRH than in the cells treated with the vehicle control (P<0.05). Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation. Flat lines in A and B represent the intensity changes for the non-cell areas. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone.
Mentions: Following the addition of GnRH, the fluorescence intensity of the HK1 cells increased rapidly (Fig. 2A). The fluorescence intensities of the untreated cells and vehicle control-treated cells (Fig. 2B) were determined for comparison. The cells, which were treated with GnRH exhibited a significantly higher increase in fluorescence intensity, compared with the cells in the vehicle control group (P<0.05; Fig. 2C and D). These data suggested that transient elevation of ionized calcium concentration occurred when the HK1 cells were treated with GnRH, thus suggesting that the hormone induced calcium signalling in the NPC cells.

Bottom Line: GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study.Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells.In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH‑receptors (GnRH‑R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH‑R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC‑derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH‑R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH‑R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti‑proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus