Limits...
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Teng LH, Ahmad M, Ng WT, Sabaratnam S, Rasan MI, Parhar I, Khoo AS - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study.Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells.In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH‑receptors (GnRH‑R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH‑R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC‑derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH‑R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH‑R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti‑proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in NPC. (A) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in biopsies from patients with NPC, determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The GnRH-R and GnRH transcripts were detected in the majority of specimens (Lane 1, 2, 4 and 5). β-actin mRNA was amplified as a control. (B) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in the NPC cell lines (lane 1, HK1; lane 2, C666-1) and nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (lanes 3 and 4, NP69 and NP460). (C) Immunohistochemistry for the expression of GnRH-R in NPC xenografts and specimens, visualized using a Nikon ECLIPSE Ti microscope (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Breast cancer tissue was stained as a positive control (b), while the primary antibody was omitted as a negative control (a). GnRH-R was detected in HK1 NPC xenograft (c) and NPC biopsy (d) and (e) at a high magnification. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; GnRH-R, GnRH-receptor.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581822&req=5

f1-mmr-12-04-4909: Expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in NPC. (A) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in biopsies from patients with NPC, determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The GnRH-R and GnRH transcripts were detected in the majority of specimens (Lane 1, 2, 4 and 5). β-actin mRNA was amplified as a control. (B) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in the NPC cell lines (lane 1, HK1; lane 2, C666-1) and nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (lanes 3 and 4, NP69 and NP460). (C) Immunohistochemistry for the expression of GnRH-R in NPC xenografts and specimens, visualized using a Nikon ECLIPSE Ti microscope (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Breast cancer tissue was stained as a positive control (b), while the primary antibody was omitted as a negative control (a). GnRH-R was detected in HK1 NPC xenograft (c) and NPC biopsy (d) and (e) at a high magnification. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; GnRH-R, GnRH-receptor.

Mentions: The microarray dataset deposited by Sengupta et al (20) on the public database, GEO, revealed that GnRH-R was expressed in 22 of the 31 NPC specimens (71%), while the hormone, GnRH, was expressed in 25 of the 31 specimens (81%). To verify this finding, several snap-frozen NPC biopsies were examined for their mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH. As shown in Fig. 1A, amplified products of GnRH-R and GnRH, with predicted sizes of 209 bp and 116 bp, respectively, were observed from at least four samples, with a faint β-actin (internal control) band observed in sample 3. The PCR products were confirmed by sequencing.


Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone inhibits the proliferation and motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

Teng LH, Ahmad M, Ng WT, Sabaratnam S, Rasan MI, Parhar I, Khoo AS - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in NPC. (A) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in biopsies from patients with NPC, determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The GnRH-R and GnRH transcripts were detected in the majority of specimens (Lane 1, 2, 4 and 5). β-actin mRNA was amplified as a control. (B) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in the NPC cell lines (lane 1, HK1; lane 2, C666-1) and nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (lanes 3 and 4, NP69 and NP460). (C) Immunohistochemistry for the expression of GnRH-R in NPC xenografts and specimens, visualized using a Nikon ECLIPSE Ti microscope (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Breast cancer tissue was stained as a positive control (b), while the primary antibody was omitted as a negative control (a). GnRH-R was detected in HK1 NPC xenograft (c) and NPC biopsy (d) and (e) at a high magnification. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; GnRH-R, GnRH-receptor.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581822&req=5

f1-mmr-12-04-4909: Expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in NPC. (A) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in biopsies from patients with NPC, determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The GnRH-R and GnRH transcripts were detected in the majority of specimens (Lane 1, 2, 4 and 5). β-actin mRNA was amplified as a control. (B) mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH in the NPC cell lines (lane 1, HK1; lane 2, C666-1) and nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (lanes 3 and 4, NP69 and NP460). (C) Immunohistochemistry for the expression of GnRH-R in NPC xenografts and specimens, visualized using a Nikon ECLIPSE Ti microscope (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Breast cancer tissue was stained as a positive control (b), while the primary antibody was omitted as a negative control (a). GnRH-R was detected in HK1 NPC xenograft (c) and NPC biopsy (d) and (e) at a high magnification. NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; GnRH, gonadotropin releasing hormone; GnRH-R, GnRH-receptor.
Mentions: The microarray dataset deposited by Sengupta et al (20) on the public database, GEO, revealed that GnRH-R was expressed in 22 of the 31 NPC specimens (71%), while the hormone, GnRH, was expressed in 25 of the 31 specimens (81%). To verify this finding, several snap-frozen NPC biopsies were examined for their mRNA expression levels of GnRH-R and GnRH. As shown in Fig. 1A, amplified products of GnRH-R and GnRH, with predicted sizes of 209 bp and 116 bp, respectively, were observed from at least four samples, with a faint β-actin (internal control) band observed in sample 3. The PCR products were confirmed by sequencing.

Bottom Line: GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study.Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells.In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Pathology Unit, Cancer Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Gonadotropin‑releasing hormone (GnRH), or its analogues have been demonstrated to exhibit anti‑proliferative effects on tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer through GnRH‑receptors (GnRH‑R). However, the role of GnRH in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate the effects of GnRH in NPC, the present study examined the expression of the GnRH‑R transcript in NPC and investigated the phenotypic changes in HK1 cells, a recurrent NPC‑derived cell line, upon receiving GnRH treatment. Firstly, the GnRH‑R transcript was demonstrated in the NPC cell lines and four snap frozen biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of GnRH‑R in two of the eight (25%) NPC specimens. Treatment with GnRH induced a rapid increase in intracellular ionised calcium concentration in the NPC cells. GnRH and its agonists, triptorelin and leuprolide, exerted anti‑proliferative effects on the NPC cells, as determined using an MTS assay. GnRH did not induce any cell cycle arrest in the HK1 cells under the conditions assessed in the present study. Time‑lapse imaging demonstrated a reduction in cell motility in the GnRH‑treated cells. In conclusion, GnRH, or its analogues may have antitumour effects on NPC cells. The consequences of alterations in the levels of GnRH on the progression of NPC require further examination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus