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Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity.

López-Aguirre C, Pérez-Torres J, Wilson LA - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not.Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species.The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales , Sydney , Australia ; Unidad de Ecología y Sistemática (UNESIS), Departamento de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana , Bogotá , Colombia.

ABSTRACT
Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

No MeSH data available.


Map showing geographical distribution of locations sampled for Carollia perspicillata (concentric circles), C. brevicauda (grey circles) and C. castanea (black circles), within the biogeographic regions present in Colombia.
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fig-1: Map showing geographical distribution of locations sampled for Carollia perspicillata (concentric circles), C. brevicauda (grey circles) and C. castanea (black circles), within the biogeographic regions present in Colombia.

Mentions: A total of 286 specimens of Carollia (C. brevicauda = 108; C. castanea = 82; C. perspicillata = 96) from 143 different localities in Colombia were evaluated for this study (see Table S1). The criteria for specimen selection were: that only sites with at least one male and one female available were considered, and, to ensure adequate representation of all five biogeographic regions (Caribbean, Pacific, Andean, Amazonian, and Orinoquean) and independence between samples (sites separated by at least 30 km), that one locality only was selected per municipality for each species (Fig. 1).


Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity.

López-Aguirre C, Pérez-Torres J, Wilson LA - PeerJ (2015)

Map showing geographical distribution of locations sampled for Carollia perspicillata (concentric circles), C. brevicauda (grey circles) and C. castanea (black circles), within the biogeographic regions present in Colombia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581772&req=5

fig-1: Map showing geographical distribution of locations sampled for Carollia perspicillata (concentric circles), C. brevicauda (grey circles) and C. castanea (black circles), within the biogeographic regions present in Colombia.
Mentions: A total of 286 specimens of Carollia (C. brevicauda = 108; C. castanea = 82; C. perspicillata = 96) from 143 different localities in Colombia were evaluated for this study (see Table S1). The criteria for specimen selection were: that only sites with at least one male and one female available were considered, and, to ensure adequate representation of all five biogeographic regions (Caribbean, Pacific, Andean, Amazonian, and Orinoquean) and independence between samples (sites separated by at least 30 km), that one locality only was selected per municipality for each species (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not.Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species.The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales , Sydney , Australia ; Unidad de Ecología y Sistemática (UNESIS), Departamento de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana , Bogotá , Colombia.

ABSTRACT
Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.

No MeSH data available.