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Polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibits anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines, and induces cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells.

Zhao Q, Huo XC, Sun FD, Dong RQ - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world.At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC.In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive types of human malignancy, which has an overall 5-year survival rate of <2%. PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world. At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from Salvia chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of five cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) were evaluated in MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The effects of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution and ΛΨm were assessed by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy, using 4',6‑diamidino‑2‑phenylindole as a staining agent, was performed in order to detect the morphological changes of the MiapaCa‑2 cancer cells and the presence of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract. The results of the present study demonstrated that the polyphenol‑rich extract from S. chinensis induced potent cytotoxicity in the MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT‑116 and COLO 205 human colon cancer cells, and MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The Colo 205 and MCF‑7 cancer cell lines were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, which exhibited increased rate of growth inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and detected the appearance of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract in the PC cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

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Molecular structures of the compounds in the methanol extract of Salvia chinensis, identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
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f9-mmr-12-04-4843: Molecular structures of the compounds in the methanol extract of Salvia chinensis, identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Mentions: In the present study, analysis of the S. chinensis methanol extract was performed using LC-ESI-MS as well as HPLC techniques. The extract was run under positive and negative ESI-MS conditions, and demonstrated several major and minor peaks. The total ion MS chromatogram, and the structure of the identified molecules are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. Fragmentation of the major peaks was used for identification of the compounds. Identification of the chemical compounds was also achieved by comparing the molecular ion peaks and MS fragmentation patterns with those described in the literature. The six chemical constituents identified in the extract were as follows: Protocatechuic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid D, xeractinol, kaempferol and apigenin. All these compounds belong to the polyphenol class of natural products.


Polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibits anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines, and induces cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells.

Zhao Q, Huo XC, Sun FD, Dong RQ - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Molecular structures of the compounds in the methanol extract of Salvia chinensis, identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581742&req=5

f9-mmr-12-04-4843: Molecular structures of the compounds in the methanol extract of Salvia chinensis, identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Mentions: In the present study, analysis of the S. chinensis methanol extract was performed using LC-ESI-MS as well as HPLC techniques. The extract was run under positive and negative ESI-MS conditions, and demonstrated several major and minor peaks. The total ion MS chromatogram, and the structure of the identified molecules are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. Fragmentation of the major peaks was used for identification of the compounds. Identification of the chemical compounds was also achieved by comparing the molecular ion peaks and MS fragmentation patterns with those described in the literature. The six chemical constituents identified in the extract were as follows: Protocatechuic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid D, xeractinol, kaempferol and apigenin. All these compounds belong to the polyphenol class of natural products.

Bottom Line: PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world.At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC.In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive types of human malignancy, which has an overall 5-year survival rate of <2%. PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world. At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from Salvia chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of five cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) were evaluated in MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The effects of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution and ΛΨm were assessed by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy, using 4',6‑diamidino‑2‑phenylindole as a staining agent, was performed in order to detect the morphological changes of the MiapaCa‑2 cancer cells and the presence of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract. The results of the present study demonstrated that the polyphenol‑rich extract from S. chinensis induced potent cytotoxicity in the MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT‑116 and COLO 205 human colon cancer cells, and MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The Colo 205 and MCF‑7 cancer cell lines were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, which exhibited increased rate of growth inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and detected the appearance of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract in the PC cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus