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Polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibits anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines, and induces cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells.

Zhao Q, Huo XC, Sun FD, Dong RQ - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world.At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC.In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive types of human malignancy, which has an overall 5-year survival rate of <2%. PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world. At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from Salvia chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of five cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) were evaluated in MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The effects of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution and ΛΨm were assessed by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy, using 4',6‑diamidino‑2‑phenylindole as a staining agent, was performed in order to detect the morphological changes of the MiapaCa‑2 cancer cells and the presence of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract. The results of the present study demonstrated that the polyphenol‑rich extract from S. chinensis induced potent cytotoxicity in the MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT‑116 and COLO 205 human colon cancer cells, and MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The Colo 205 and MCF‑7 cancer cell lines were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, which exhibited increased rate of growth inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and detected the appearance of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract in the PC cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

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Cytotoxic effect of Salvia chinensis extract on MiapaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells at different durations of treatment (12, 24, and 48 h). Data are expressed as the mean + standard deviation of three independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, vs 0 µg/ml (control).
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f2-mmr-12-04-4843: Cytotoxic effect of Salvia chinensis extract on MiapaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells at different durations of treatment (12, 24, and 48 h). Data are expressed as the mean + standard deviation of three independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, vs 0 µg/ml (control).

Mentions: The polyphenol-rich extract was evaluated for antiproliferative activity using an MTT assay. The MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, COLO-205 human colon cancer cells, MiapaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast normal cell line were treated with the extract for 24 h (Fig. 1). The extract exhibited potent dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against the different cancer cell lines. The COLO-205 and MCF-7 cancer cells were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, and exhibited increased growth inhibition. The HCT-116 and MiapaCa-2 cells exhibited higher levels of growth inhibition only following treatment with higher concentrations of the extract. In order to examine the toxic effects of the extract on normal cells, the cytotoxic effects of the extract were assessed against the NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The extract demonstrated reduced cytotoxicity towards the normal cell line, compared with the cancer cell lines, suggesting that its effects are specific to cancer cells. The effect of the polyphenol-rich extract on the growth of MiapaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated using an MTT assay at three different time intervals (12, 24 and 48 h). The cytotoxic effect of the extract on the cells was dose- and time-dependent. At increased time intervals, high levels of growth inhibition were observed (Fig. 2).


Polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibits anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines, and induces cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells.

Zhao Q, Huo XC, Sun FD, Dong RQ - Mol Med Rep (2015)

Cytotoxic effect of Salvia chinensis extract on MiapaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells at different durations of treatment (12, 24, and 48 h). Data are expressed as the mean + standard deviation of three independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, vs 0 µg/ml (control).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581742&req=5

f2-mmr-12-04-4843: Cytotoxic effect of Salvia chinensis extract on MiapaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells at different durations of treatment (12, 24, and 48 h). Data are expressed as the mean + standard deviation of three independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, vs 0 µg/ml (control).
Mentions: The polyphenol-rich extract was evaluated for antiproliferative activity using an MTT assay. The MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, COLO-205 human colon cancer cells, MiapaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast normal cell line were treated with the extract for 24 h (Fig. 1). The extract exhibited potent dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against the different cancer cell lines. The COLO-205 and MCF-7 cancer cells were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, and exhibited increased growth inhibition. The HCT-116 and MiapaCa-2 cells exhibited higher levels of growth inhibition only following treatment with higher concentrations of the extract. In order to examine the toxic effects of the extract on normal cells, the cytotoxic effects of the extract were assessed against the NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The extract demonstrated reduced cytotoxicity towards the normal cell line, compared with the cancer cell lines, suggesting that its effects are specific to cancer cells. The effect of the polyphenol-rich extract on the growth of MiapaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated using an MTT assay at three different time intervals (12, 24 and 48 h). The cytotoxic effect of the extract on the cells was dose- and time-dependent. At increased time intervals, high levels of growth inhibition were observed (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world.At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC.In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmacy, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive types of human malignancy, which has an overall 5-year survival rate of <2%. PC is the fourth most common cause of cancer‑associated mortality in the western world. At present, there is almost no effective treatment available for the treatment of PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from Salvia chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of five cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) were evaluated in MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The effects of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution and ΛΨm were assessed by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide and rhodamine‑123 DNA‑binding fluorescent dyes, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy, using 4',6‑diamidino‑2‑phenylindole as a staining agent, was performed in order to detect the morphological changes of the MiapaCa‑2 cancer cells and the presence of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract. The results of the present study demonstrated that the polyphenol‑rich extract from S. chinensis induced potent cytotoxicity in the MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells, A549 human lung cancer cells, HCT‑116 and COLO 205 human colon cancer cells, and MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. The Colo 205 and MCF‑7 cancer cell lines were the most susceptible to treatment with the extract, which exhibited increased rate of growth inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy revealed characteristic morphological features of apoptosis and detected the appearance of apoptotic bodies following treatment with the extract in the PC cells. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the extract induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, treatment with the extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in the ΛΨm of the PC cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus