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The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study.

El Sadik AO, El Ghamrawy TA, Abd El-Galil TI - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds.Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas more than in other groups.MSCs enhanced the healing process of wound closure more than chitosan gel treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques.

Material and methods: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies.

Results: Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas more than in other groups.

Conclusion: MSCs enhanced the healing process of wound closure more than chitosan gel treatment. Furthermore, MSCs injected intradermally, were more efficient in accelerating wound healing than any other mode of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs of the skin wound area on the 10th day.a,b) control group showing wound surface covered by crust and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of the epidermis and skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed normal epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and sebaceous gland. Wound granulation tissue showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels. c,d) Group II showing wound surface covered with regenerated epidermis and wound bed filled with granulation tissue with inflammatory cell infiltrate, congested blood vessels and absence of skin appendages. e,f) Group III and g,h) Group IV showing wound surface covered by regenerated epidermis with increasing thickness than Group II and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of skin appendages. Mild inflammatory cell infiltrate and few blood vessels were found in the dermis of wound bed compared to Group I and II. C: crust, GT: granulation tissue, E: epidermis, D: dermis, F: hair follicles, S: sebaceous gland, I: inflammatory cell infiltrate, thick arrow: junction between the normal skin and the wound area, V: blood vessel, (H&E, a-c-e-g x100; b-d-f-h x400)
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pone.0137544.g001: Photomicrographs of the skin wound area on the 10th day.a,b) control group showing wound surface covered by crust and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of the epidermis and skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed normal epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and sebaceous gland. Wound granulation tissue showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels. c,d) Group II showing wound surface covered with regenerated epidermis and wound bed filled with granulation tissue with inflammatory cell infiltrate, congested blood vessels and absence of skin appendages. e,f) Group III and g,h) Group IV showing wound surface covered by regenerated epidermis with increasing thickness than Group II and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of skin appendages. Mild inflammatory cell infiltrate and few blood vessels were found in the dermis of wound bed compared to Group I and II. C: crust, GT: granulation tissue, E: epidermis, D: dermis, F: hair follicles, S: sebaceous gland, I: inflammatory cell infiltrate, thick arrow: junction between the normal skin and the wound area, V: blood vessel, (H&E, a-c-e-g x100; b-d-f-h x400)

Mentions: The wound surface in the control group was covered by crust on the tenth day of the experiment. The wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of epidermis and skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed normal epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and sebaceous gland (Fig 1a). The granulation tissue in the wound bed was filled with inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels (Fig 1b). Group II (chitosan gel treated group) wound area was covered by regenerated epidermis and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue and congested blood vessels with absence of skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed hair follicles (Fig 1c). Similar to the control group, group II had granulation tissue in the wound bed filled with inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels (Fig 1d). In group III (MSCs systemically treated group), the wound area was covered by regenerated epidermis and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of skin appendages (Fig 1e). There was mild inflammatory cell infiltrate in the dermis of the wound bed and few blood vessels (Fig 1f). In group IV (intradermally injected MSCs), the wound surface was covered by regenerated epidermis and its wound bed was filled with regenerated dermis with absence of skin appendages (Fig 1g) with mild inflammatory cell infiltrate in the dermis of the wound bed and few blood vessels (Fig 1h).


The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study.

El Sadik AO, El Ghamrawy TA, Abd El-Galil TI - PLoS ONE (2015)

Photomicrographs of the skin wound area on the 10th day.a,b) control group showing wound surface covered by crust and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of the epidermis and skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed normal epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and sebaceous gland. Wound granulation tissue showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels. c,d) Group II showing wound surface covered with regenerated epidermis and wound bed filled with granulation tissue with inflammatory cell infiltrate, congested blood vessels and absence of skin appendages. e,f) Group III and g,h) Group IV showing wound surface covered by regenerated epidermis with increasing thickness than Group II and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of skin appendages. Mild inflammatory cell infiltrate and few blood vessels were found in the dermis of wound bed compared to Group I and II. C: crust, GT: granulation tissue, E: epidermis, D: dermis, F: hair follicles, S: sebaceous gland, I: inflammatory cell infiltrate, thick arrow: junction between the normal skin and the wound area, V: blood vessel, (H&E, a-c-e-g x100; b-d-f-h x400)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581728&req=5

pone.0137544.g001: Photomicrographs of the skin wound area on the 10th day.a,b) control group showing wound surface covered by crust and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of the epidermis and skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed normal epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and sebaceous gland. Wound granulation tissue showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels. c,d) Group II showing wound surface covered with regenerated epidermis and wound bed filled with granulation tissue with inflammatory cell infiltrate, congested blood vessels and absence of skin appendages. e,f) Group III and g,h) Group IV showing wound surface covered by regenerated epidermis with increasing thickness than Group II and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of skin appendages. Mild inflammatory cell infiltrate and few blood vessels were found in the dermis of wound bed compared to Group I and II. C: crust, GT: granulation tissue, E: epidermis, D: dermis, F: hair follicles, S: sebaceous gland, I: inflammatory cell infiltrate, thick arrow: junction between the normal skin and the wound area, V: blood vessel, (H&E, a-c-e-g x100; b-d-f-h x400)
Mentions: The wound surface in the control group was covered by crust on the tenth day of the experiment. The wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of epidermis and skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed normal epidermis, dermis, hair follicles and sebaceous gland (Fig 1a). The granulation tissue in the wound bed was filled with inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels (Fig 1b). Group II (chitosan gel treated group) wound area was covered by regenerated epidermis and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue and congested blood vessels with absence of skin appendages. The adjacent normal skin showed hair follicles (Fig 1c). Similar to the control group, group II had granulation tissue in the wound bed filled with inflammatory cell infiltrate and congested blood vessels (Fig 1d). In group III (MSCs systemically treated group), the wound area was covered by regenerated epidermis and the wound bed was filled with granulation tissue with absence of skin appendages (Fig 1e). There was mild inflammatory cell infiltrate in the dermis of the wound bed and few blood vessels (Fig 1f). In group IV (intradermally injected MSCs), the wound surface was covered by regenerated epidermis and its wound bed was filled with regenerated dermis with absence of skin appendages (Fig 1g) with mild inflammatory cell infiltrate in the dermis of the wound bed and few blood vessels (Fig 1h).

Bottom Line: Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds.Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas more than in other groups.MSCs enhanced the healing process of wound closure more than chitosan gel treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Background: Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques.

Material and methods: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies.

Results: Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas more than in other groups.

Conclusion: MSCs enhanced the healing process of wound closure more than chitosan gel treatment. Furthermore, MSCs injected intradermally, were more efficient in accelerating wound healing than any other mode of treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus