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Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow.In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions.Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Oran 1 (Ahmad Ben Bella), Oran, Algeria.

ABSTRACT
The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Plots for the analysis of genome-wide SNPs.PC analysis (upper figures) based on autosomal data, and X-chromosome SNPs. ADMIXTURE proportions (bottom figures) at k = 2,3, and 4 based on autosomal data and X-chromosome SNPs. Algeria, stands for general Algerian sample [3]; Mozabite, stands for the Algerian Berber Mozabites [32]; and Zenata, stands for Algerian Berber Zenata (present study).
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pone.0138453.g003: Plots for the analysis of genome-wide SNPs.PC analysis (upper figures) based on autosomal data, and X-chromosome SNPs. ADMIXTURE proportions (bottom figures) at k = 2,3, and 4 based on autosomal data and X-chromosome SNPs. Algeria, stands for general Algerian sample [3]; Mozabite, stands for the Algerian Berber Mozabites [32]; and Zenata, stands for Algerian Berber Zenata (present study).

Mentions: A genome-wide SNP array typed in a subset of individuals and samples was analyzed to complement our knowledge of the genetic structure in the Algerian population. The first two axes of the PCA show a differentiation of sub-Saharan (i.e. Yoruba), Middle Eastern (i.e. Palestinian), European (i.e. Basque), and Algerian individuals (Fig 3). All individuals form compact sample clusters with the exception of Algerian Berbers (Mozabite and Zenata) who are spread in the plot showing a gradient towards sub-Saharan Africans while others remain closer to the Algerian non-Berber sample. Moreover, Fst values reveal a higher similarity of the Zenata population with Yoruba than any of the other North-Africans (Fst = 0.037) (S7 Table). Interestingly, most of the Mozabites form a cluster separated from the Algerian non-Berber individuals at one of the edges of the second PCA.


Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Plots for the analysis of genome-wide SNPs.PC analysis (upper figures) based on autosomal data, and X-chromosome SNPs. ADMIXTURE proportions (bottom figures) at k = 2,3, and 4 based on autosomal data and X-chromosome SNPs. Algeria, stands for general Algerian sample [3]; Mozabite, stands for the Algerian Berber Mozabites [32]; and Zenata, stands for Algerian Berber Zenata (present study).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581715&req=5

pone.0138453.g003: Plots for the analysis of genome-wide SNPs.PC analysis (upper figures) based on autosomal data, and X-chromosome SNPs. ADMIXTURE proportions (bottom figures) at k = 2,3, and 4 based on autosomal data and X-chromosome SNPs. Algeria, stands for general Algerian sample [3]; Mozabite, stands for the Algerian Berber Mozabites [32]; and Zenata, stands for Algerian Berber Zenata (present study).
Mentions: A genome-wide SNP array typed in a subset of individuals and samples was analyzed to complement our knowledge of the genetic structure in the Algerian population. The first two axes of the PCA show a differentiation of sub-Saharan (i.e. Yoruba), Middle Eastern (i.e. Palestinian), European (i.e. Basque), and Algerian individuals (Fig 3). All individuals form compact sample clusters with the exception of Algerian Berbers (Mozabite and Zenata) who are spread in the plot showing a gradient towards sub-Saharan Africans while others remain closer to the Algerian non-Berber sample. Moreover, Fst values reveal a higher similarity of the Zenata population with Yoruba than any of the other North-Africans (Fst = 0.037) (S7 Table). Interestingly, most of the Mozabites form a cluster separated from the Algerian non-Berber individuals at one of the edges of the second PCA.

Bottom Line: Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow.In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions.Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Oran 1 (Ahmad Ben Bella), Oran, Algeria.

ABSTRACT
The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus