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Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow.In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions.Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Oran 1 (Ahmad Ben Bella), Oran, Algeria.

ABSTRACT
The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bidimensional plots based on uniparental genomes.PC analyses based on haplogroup data for Y-chromosome and mtDNA; and MDS analyses based on Y-STR haplotype data and on mtDNA sequence data. Abbreviations: ALG/ALG1: Algiers (this study), ALG2: Algiers (Y-chromosome; [10]), ORN1: Oran (present study), ORN2: Oran (Y-chromosome, [21]; mtDNA, [17]), RGB: Reguibate, ZNT: Zenata, MZB: Mozabite, TZO: Tizi Ouzou
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pone.0138453.g002: Bidimensional plots based on uniparental genomes.PC analyses based on haplogroup data for Y-chromosome and mtDNA; and MDS analyses based on Y-STR haplotype data and on mtDNA sequence data. Abbreviations: ALG/ALG1: Algiers (this study), ALG2: Algiers (Y-chromosome; [10]), ORN1: Oran (present study), ORN2: Oran (Y-chromosome, [21]; mtDNA, [17]), RGB: Reguibate, ZNT: Zenata, MZB: Mozabite, TZO: Tizi Ouzou

Mentions: To describe the relationships among Algerian samples, principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses were performed. The PCA plot performed on the Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies (Fig 2) shows that both Oran and Algiers samples are clustered together, respectively, and the first PCA component separates the northern populations (Oran and Algiers) from the Mozabite and the Reguibate, which present higher frequencies of haplogroup E1b1b1b-M81 whereas E1b1b1a-M78 is absent in the southern populations. In addition, pairwise genetic distances based on allele size length (RST) were calculated among samples (S3 Table) and significant distances (P<0.0001) were observed between northern populations (Oran and Algiers) and the Reguibate and Mozabite populations, which, in turn, present also significant differences between them. This fact was reflected in the MDS plot in which the first dimension separates Reguibate and Mozabite (Fig 2). Both Algiers and Oran samples show subtle differences in the PCA and MDS plots, which suggest some genetic heterogeneity in Algerian urban areas.


Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bidimensional plots based on uniparental genomes.PC analyses based on haplogroup data for Y-chromosome and mtDNA; and MDS analyses based on Y-STR haplotype data and on mtDNA sequence data. Abbreviations: ALG/ALG1: Algiers (this study), ALG2: Algiers (Y-chromosome; [10]), ORN1: Oran (present study), ORN2: Oran (Y-chromosome, [21]; mtDNA, [17]), RGB: Reguibate, ZNT: Zenata, MZB: Mozabite, TZO: Tizi Ouzou
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581715&req=5

pone.0138453.g002: Bidimensional plots based on uniparental genomes.PC analyses based on haplogroup data for Y-chromosome and mtDNA; and MDS analyses based on Y-STR haplotype data and on mtDNA sequence data. Abbreviations: ALG/ALG1: Algiers (this study), ALG2: Algiers (Y-chromosome; [10]), ORN1: Oran (present study), ORN2: Oran (Y-chromosome, [21]; mtDNA, [17]), RGB: Reguibate, ZNT: Zenata, MZB: Mozabite, TZO: Tizi Ouzou
Mentions: To describe the relationships among Algerian samples, principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses were performed. The PCA plot performed on the Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies (Fig 2) shows that both Oran and Algiers samples are clustered together, respectively, and the first PCA component separates the northern populations (Oran and Algiers) from the Mozabite and the Reguibate, which present higher frequencies of haplogroup E1b1b1b-M81 whereas E1b1b1a-M78 is absent in the southern populations. In addition, pairwise genetic distances based on allele size length (RST) were calculated among samples (S3 Table) and significant distances (P<0.0001) were observed between northern populations (Oran and Algiers) and the Reguibate and Mozabite populations, which, in turn, present also significant differences between them. This fact was reflected in the MDS plot in which the first dimension separates Reguibate and Mozabite (Fig 2). Both Algiers and Oran samples show subtle differences in the PCA and MDS plots, which suggest some genetic heterogeneity in Algerian urban areas.

Bottom Line: Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow.In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions.Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Oran 1 (Ahmad Ben Bella), Oran, Algeria.

ABSTRACT
The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus