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Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow.In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions.Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Oran 1 (Ahmad Ben Bella), Oran, Algeria.

ABSTRACT
The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Geographic location of the Algerian samples genotyped in the present study (in red) and the samples obtained from the literature (in yellow).
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pone.0138453.g001: Geographic location of the Algerian samples genotyped in the present study (in red) and the samples obtained from the literature (in yellow).

Mentions: Four populations from Algeria were genotyped in this study (Oran, Algiers, Reguibate and Zenata) (Fig 1). The sampling from Algiers and Oran, the largest cities in Algeria, was performed on the general population. In Oran city, volunteers were blood donors at the blood transfusion center of the University Hospital of Oran (CTS-CHUO). The Reguibate population was founded by Sidi Ahmed al-Rgibi (also known as Er Regubi) who lived in the Saguia el-Hamra region (in the north part of Western Sahara) in the 16th century. They were originally a nomadic tribe but nowadays they are settled in Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania, as well as in Algeria, in the region of Tindouf (in southwest Algeria close to the Mauritanian, Saharawi and Moroccan borders) where the sample was obtained. All the sampled individuals speak Hassaniya Arabic (a dialect very close to the literary Arab). The Zenata population, also called Zenet or Iznaten, is an ethnic Berber group in North Africa that is spread from Libya to Morocco. They speak a Berber dialect called Zenet or Zetani, which have some similitude with other Berber dialects. The Zenata individuals sampled are residents in the city of Timimoun, a little oasis village in Adrar Province, in the Gourara region (West Algerian Sahara).


Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations.

Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Geographic location of the Algerian samples genotyped in the present study (in red) and the samples obtained from the literature (in yellow).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581715&req=5

pone.0138453.g001: Geographic location of the Algerian samples genotyped in the present study (in red) and the samples obtained from the literature (in yellow).
Mentions: Four populations from Algeria were genotyped in this study (Oran, Algiers, Reguibate and Zenata) (Fig 1). The sampling from Algiers and Oran, the largest cities in Algeria, was performed on the general population. In Oran city, volunteers were blood donors at the blood transfusion center of the University Hospital of Oran (CTS-CHUO). The Reguibate population was founded by Sidi Ahmed al-Rgibi (also known as Er Regubi) who lived in the Saguia el-Hamra region (in the north part of Western Sahara) in the 16th century. They were originally a nomadic tribe but nowadays they are settled in Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania, as well as in Algeria, in the region of Tindouf (in southwest Algeria close to the Mauritanian, Saharawi and Moroccan borders) where the sample was obtained. All the sampled individuals speak Hassaniya Arabic (a dialect very close to the literary Arab). The Zenata population, also called Zenet or Iznaten, is an ethnic Berber group in North Africa that is spread from Libya to Morocco. They speak a Berber dialect called Zenet or Zetani, which have some similitude with other Berber dialects. The Zenata individuals sampled are residents in the city of Timimoun, a little oasis village in Adrar Province, in the Gourara region (West Algerian Sahara).

Bottom Line: Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow.In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions.Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Département de Biotechnologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Oran 1 (Ahmad Ben Bella), Oran, Algeria.

ABSTRACT
The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus