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Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

van Zonneveld M, Ramirez M, Williams DE, Petz M, Meckelmann S, Avila T, Bejarano C, Ríos L, Peña K, Jäger M, Libreros D, Amaya K, Scheldeman X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country.In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs.In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioversity International, Costa Rica Office, Turrialba, Costa Rica.

ABSTRACT
For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country. In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs. In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cultivated Capsicum gene pools.Capsicum annuum L., C. chinense L. and C. frutescens L., while morphologically distinguishable, are largely interfertile with one another and are commonly regarded forming a species complex [24]. These three sister cultigens, together with their conspecific wild populations, including C. annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill, constitute the Capsicum annuum primary gene pool. The Capsicum baccatum primary gene pool is formed by the cultivated C. baccatum L. or more specifically C. baccatum var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh; its conspecific wild relative C. baccatum var. baccatum; and the more distantly related species, C. baccatum var. praetermissum (Heiser & P. G. Sm.) Hunz. Capsicum baccatum’s secondary gene pool consists of C. chacoense Hunz. The Capsicum pubescens primary gene pool is made up of the cultivated species (C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.), together with the closely related purple-flowered wild species C. cardenasii Heiser & P. G. Sm. and C. eximium Hunz. [24], [25]. Several other wild edible species, C. eshbaughii Barboza and C. caballeroi Nee are recently discovered in Bolivia and resemble C. eximium and C. cardenasii in certain fruit and flower aspects, but their relativeness to C. pubescens still needs to be clarified [42], [54]. And so there are other wild species that require further analysis. The little-studied wild species Capsicum galapagoense Hunz. and C. tovarii Eshbaugh et al. have been suggested by some authors to form part of the C. annuum complex and C. baccatum gene pools, respectively, but are intentionally left out of this diagram until more conclusive evidence supporting their inclusion becomes available. The cultivated C. baccatum var. umbilicatum (Vell.) Hunz. & Barboza is not included until further evidence confirms its distinction from C. baccatum var. pendulum.
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pone.0134663.g003: Cultivated Capsicum gene pools.Capsicum annuum L., C. chinense L. and C. frutescens L., while morphologically distinguishable, are largely interfertile with one another and are commonly regarded forming a species complex [24]. These three sister cultigens, together with their conspecific wild populations, including C. annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill, constitute the Capsicum annuum primary gene pool. The Capsicum baccatum primary gene pool is formed by the cultivated C. baccatum L. or more specifically C. baccatum var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh; its conspecific wild relative C. baccatum var. baccatum; and the more distantly related species, C. baccatum var. praetermissum (Heiser & P. G. Sm.) Hunz. Capsicum baccatum’s secondary gene pool consists of C. chacoense Hunz. The Capsicum pubescens primary gene pool is made up of the cultivated species (C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.), together with the closely related purple-flowered wild species C. cardenasii Heiser & P. G. Sm. and C. eximium Hunz. [24], [25]. Several other wild edible species, C. eshbaughii Barboza and C. caballeroi Nee are recently discovered in Bolivia and resemble C. eximium and C. cardenasii in certain fruit and flower aspects, but their relativeness to C. pubescens still needs to be clarified [42], [54]. And so there are other wild species that require further analysis. The little-studied wild species Capsicum galapagoense Hunz. and C. tovarii Eshbaugh et al. have been suggested by some authors to form part of the C. annuum complex and C. baccatum gene pools, respectively, but are intentionally left out of this diagram until more conclusive evidence supporting their inclusion becomes available. The cultivated C. baccatum var. umbilicatum (Vell.) Hunz. & Barboza is not included until further evidence confirms its distinction from C. baccatum var. pendulum.

Mentions: The high degree of genetic diversity found within the genus provides both opportunities and challenges for plant breeders as the full extent and structure of this diversity remains underutilized and imperfectly understood. Crossing experiments and molecular marker studies have shown that the five domesticated species of Capsicum pertain to three distinct primary gene pools (sensu [23]), [24], [25], which are centered around C. annuum, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens, respectively, and are based on the degree of genetic proximity and reproductive compatibility with the target cultigen [26]. The three gene pools have little reproductive compatibility between them, although successful crosses have been reported between plants from the C. annuum and C. baccatum complexes [24], [27], [28]. Together, they include all of the cultivated landraces and local varieties pertaining to the five domesticates, as well as at least eight wild Capsicum taxa and conspecific wild populations (Fig 3).


Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

van Zonneveld M, Ramirez M, Williams DE, Petz M, Meckelmann S, Avila T, Bejarano C, Ríos L, Peña K, Jäger M, Libreros D, Amaya K, Scheldeman X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cultivated Capsicum gene pools.Capsicum annuum L., C. chinense L. and C. frutescens L., while morphologically distinguishable, are largely interfertile with one another and are commonly regarded forming a species complex [24]. These three sister cultigens, together with their conspecific wild populations, including C. annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill, constitute the Capsicum annuum primary gene pool. The Capsicum baccatum primary gene pool is formed by the cultivated C. baccatum L. or more specifically C. baccatum var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh; its conspecific wild relative C. baccatum var. baccatum; and the more distantly related species, C. baccatum var. praetermissum (Heiser & P. G. Sm.) Hunz. Capsicum baccatum’s secondary gene pool consists of C. chacoense Hunz. The Capsicum pubescens primary gene pool is made up of the cultivated species (C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.), together with the closely related purple-flowered wild species C. cardenasii Heiser & P. G. Sm. and C. eximium Hunz. [24], [25]. Several other wild edible species, C. eshbaughii Barboza and C. caballeroi Nee are recently discovered in Bolivia and resemble C. eximium and C. cardenasii in certain fruit and flower aspects, but their relativeness to C. pubescens still needs to be clarified [42], [54]. And so there are other wild species that require further analysis. The little-studied wild species Capsicum galapagoense Hunz. and C. tovarii Eshbaugh et al. have been suggested by some authors to form part of the C. annuum complex and C. baccatum gene pools, respectively, but are intentionally left out of this diagram until more conclusive evidence supporting their inclusion becomes available. The cultivated C. baccatum var. umbilicatum (Vell.) Hunz. & Barboza is not included until further evidence confirms its distinction from C. baccatum var. pendulum.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581705&req=5

pone.0134663.g003: Cultivated Capsicum gene pools.Capsicum annuum L., C. chinense L. and C. frutescens L., while morphologically distinguishable, are largely interfertile with one another and are commonly regarded forming a species complex [24]. These three sister cultigens, together with their conspecific wild populations, including C. annuum var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill, constitute the Capsicum annuum primary gene pool. The Capsicum baccatum primary gene pool is formed by the cultivated C. baccatum L. or more specifically C. baccatum var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh; its conspecific wild relative C. baccatum var. baccatum; and the more distantly related species, C. baccatum var. praetermissum (Heiser & P. G. Sm.) Hunz. Capsicum baccatum’s secondary gene pool consists of C. chacoense Hunz. The Capsicum pubescens primary gene pool is made up of the cultivated species (C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.), together with the closely related purple-flowered wild species C. cardenasii Heiser & P. G. Sm. and C. eximium Hunz. [24], [25]. Several other wild edible species, C. eshbaughii Barboza and C. caballeroi Nee are recently discovered in Bolivia and resemble C. eximium and C. cardenasii in certain fruit and flower aspects, but their relativeness to C. pubescens still needs to be clarified [42], [54]. And so there are other wild species that require further analysis. The little-studied wild species Capsicum galapagoense Hunz. and C. tovarii Eshbaugh et al. have been suggested by some authors to form part of the C. annuum complex and C. baccatum gene pools, respectively, but are intentionally left out of this diagram until more conclusive evidence supporting their inclusion becomes available. The cultivated C. baccatum var. umbilicatum (Vell.) Hunz. & Barboza is not included until further evidence confirms its distinction from C. baccatum var. pendulum.
Mentions: The high degree of genetic diversity found within the genus provides both opportunities and challenges for plant breeders as the full extent and structure of this diversity remains underutilized and imperfectly understood. Crossing experiments and molecular marker studies have shown that the five domesticated species of Capsicum pertain to three distinct primary gene pools (sensu [23]), [24], [25], which are centered around C. annuum, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens, respectively, and are based on the degree of genetic proximity and reproductive compatibility with the target cultigen [26]. The three gene pools have little reproductive compatibility between them, although successful crosses have been reported between plants from the C. annuum and C. baccatum complexes [24], [27], [28]. Together, they include all of the cultivated landraces and local varieties pertaining to the five domesticates, as well as at least eight wild Capsicum taxa and conspecific wild populations (Fig 3).

Bottom Line: Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country.In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs.In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioversity International, Costa Rica Office, Turrialba, Costa Rica.

ABSTRACT
For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country. In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs. In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus