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Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

van Zonneveld M, Ramirez M, Williams DE, Petz M, Meckelmann S, Avila T, Bejarano C, Ríos L, Peña K, Jäger M, Libreros D, Amaya K, Scheldeman X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country.In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs.In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioversity International, Costa Rica Office, Turrialba, Costa Rica.

ABSTRACT
For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country. In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs. In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Capsicum eximium fruits, flowers and shrub in the backyard of a Bolivian farm, in Padilla, Chuquisaca.The fruits of this species are known as ´ulupica´. This is one of the several wild peppers, which is consumed in Bolivia. Photo credits: Maarten van Zonneveld.
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pone.0134663.g002: Capsicum eximium fruits, flowers and shrub in the backyard of a Bolivian farm, in Padilla, Chuquisaca.The fruits of this species are known as ´ulupica´. This is one of the several wild peppers, which is consumed in Bolivia. Photo credits: Maarten van Zonneveld.

Mentions: Our research focused on Peru and Bolivia, which constitute the primary center of cultivated Capsicum diversity. Bolivia is one of America’s wild pepper hotspots [6], [7], where the fruits of several wild pepper species are consumed as food and used for medicinal purposes (Fig 2). Most wild peppers in other Capsicum hotspots, such as the Atlantic forests in Brazil, belong to an evolutionary distinct group, and are not consumed by humans [7], [8]. Peru is an important area of Capsicum diversification and is reportedly the country that harbors the greatest diversity of cultivated Capsicum in the world [9], [10]. Pepper species were cultivated in Peru as early as 4,000 years before present [11]. In pre-Columbian times, cultivated Capsicum species were probably transported to Peru from their centers of crop origin: C. annuum from Mexico; C. chinense from the Amazon basin, including its headwaters in Peru; while C. baccatum and C. pubescens were introduced from Bolivia, where they were probably first domesticated after the Neolithic revolution that started 12,000 years before present [6], [12], [13]. The fifth cultivated pepper, C. frutescens may have been domesticated in Central America or the Amazon basin [6].


Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

van Zonneveld M, Ramirez M, Williams DE, Petz M, Meckelmann S, Avila T, Bejarano C, Ríos L, Peña K, Jäger M, Libreros D, Amaya K, Scheldeman X - PLoS ONE (2015)

Capsicum eximium fruits, flowers and shrub in the backyard of a Bolivian farm, in Padilla, Chuquisaca.The fruits of this species are known as ´ulupica´. This is one of the several wild peppers, which is consumed in Bolivia. Photo credits: Maarten van Zonneveld.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581705&req=5

pone.0134663.g002: Capsicum eximium fruits, flowers and shrub in the backyard of a Bolivian farm, in Padilla, Chuquisaca.The fruits of this species are known as ´ulupica´. This is one of the several wild peppers, which is consumed in Bolivia. Photo credits: Maarten van Zonneveld.
Mentions: Our research focused on Peru and Bolivia, which constitute the primary center of cultivated Capsicum diversity. Bolivia is one of America’s wild pepper hotspots [6], [7], where the fruits of several wild pepper species are consumed as food and used for medicinal purposes (Fig 2). Most wild peppers in other Capsicum hotspots, such as the Atlantic forests in Brazil, belong to an evolutionary distinct group, and are not consumed by humans [7], [8]. Peru is an important area of Capsicum diversification and is reportedly the country that harbors the greatest diversity of cultivated Capsicum in the world [9], [10]. Pepper species were cultivated in Peru as early as 4,000 years before present [11]. In pre-Columbian times, cultivated Capsicum species were probably transported to Peru from their centers of crop origin: C. annuum from Mexico; C. chinense from the Amazon basin, including its headwaters in Peru; while C. baccatum and C. pubescens were introduced from Bolivia, where they were probably first domesticated after the Neolithic revolution that started 12,000 years before present [6], [12], [13]. The fifth cultivated pepper, C. frutescens may have been domesticated in Central America or the Amazon basin [6].

Bottom Line: Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country.In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs.In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioversity International, Costa Rica Office, Turrialba, Costa Rica.

ABSTRACT
For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country. In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs. In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus