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Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.

Varasteh S, Braber S, Akbari P, Garssen J, Fink-Gremmels J - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production.The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR) HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α) and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots).In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine is limited, especially in avian species. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the heat stress-induced sequence of events in the intestines of chickens. Furthermore, the gut health-promoting effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) was investigated in these heat stress-exposed chickens. Chickens were fed a control diet or diet supplemented with 1% or 2.5% GOS (6 days) prior to and during a temperature challenge for 5 days (38-39°C, 8h per day). The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR) HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α) and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots). In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. In the jejunum, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-5, ZO-1, TLR-4, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and HSP70 protein expression were increased after heat stress exposure and a more pronounced increase in gene expression was observed in ileum after heat stress exposure, and in addition HSF1, claudin-1 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were upregulated. Furthermore, the IL-8 plasma levels were decreased in chickens exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, the heat stress-related effects in the jejunum were prevented in chickens fed a GOS diet, while dietary GOS did not alter these effects in ileum. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of heat stress exposure on the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in jejunum and ileum of chickens fed a control or GOS diet.Chickens fed a control or GOS (1 or 2.5%) diet for 6 days before being exposed to either control or heat stress conditions for 5 days. mRNA expression of TLR-2 (A, B) and TLR-4 (C, D) in jejunum (A, C) and ileum (B, D) were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Results are presented as relative mRNA expression (fold of control, normalized to β-actin) as mean ± SEM, n = 6–10 animals/experimental group. Different lower-case letters denote significant differences among groups.
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pone.0138975.g004: The effect of heat stress exposure on the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in jejunum and ileum of chickens fed a control or GOS diet.Chickens fed a control or GOS (1 or 2.5%) diet for 6 days before being exposed to either control or heat stress conditions for 5 days. mRNA expression of TLR-2 (A, B) and TLR-4 (C, D) in jejunum (A, C) and ileum (B, D) were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Results are presented as relative mRNA expression (fold of control, normalized to β-actin) as mean ± SEM, n = 6–10 animals/experimental group. Different lower-case letters denote significant differences among groups.

Mentions: Although no significant differences were detected in TLR-2 mRNA levels between control and heat-exposed chickens in jejunum and ileum (Fig 4A and 4B), the mRNA expression of TLR-4 increased significantly in both jejunum (Fig 4C) and ileum (Fig 4D) after heat exposure. Supplementation of GOS (2.5%) to the diet significantly prevented the heat-induced TLR-4 induction in jejunum (Fig 4C), while GOS did not modulate this effect in the chicken ileum (Fig 4D).


Differences in Susceptibility to Heat Stress along the Chicken Intestine and the Protective Effects of Galacto-Oligosaccharides.

Varasteh S, Braber S, Akbari P, Garssen J, Fink-Gremmels J - PLoS ONE (2015)

The effect of heat stress exposure on the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in jejunum and ileum of chickens fed a control or GOS diet.Chickens fed a control or GOS (1 or 2.5%) diet for 6 days before being exposed to either control or heat stress conditions for 5 days. mRNA expression of TLR-2 (A, B) and TLR-4 (C, D) in jejunum (A, C) and ileum (B, D) were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Results are presented as relative mRNA expression (fold of control, normalized to β-actin) as mean ± SEM, n = 6–10 animals/experimental group. Different lower-case letters denote significant differences among groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581695&req=5

pone.0138975.g004: The effect of heat stress exposure on the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in jejunum and ileum of chickens fed a control or GOS diet.Chickens fed a control or GOS (1 or 2.5%) diet for 6 days before being exposed to either control or heat stress conditions for 5 days. mRNA expression of TLR-2 (A, B) and TLR-4 (C, D) in jejunum (A, C) and ileum (B, D) were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Results are presented as relative mRNA expression (fold of control, normalized to β-actin) as mean ± SEM, n = 6–10 animals/experimental group. Different lower-case letters denote significant differences among groups.
Mentions: Although no significant differences were detected in TLR-2 mRNA levels between control and heat-exposed chickens in jejunum and ileum (Fig 4A and 4B), the mRNA expression of TLR-4 increased significantly in both jejunum (Fig 4C) and ileum (Fig 4D) after heat exposure. Supplementation of GOS (2.5%) to the diet significantly prevented the heat-induced TLR-4 induction in jejunum (Fig 4C), while GOS did not modulate this effect in the chicken ileum (Fig 4D).

Bottom Line: High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production.The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR) HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α) and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots).In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
High ambient temperatures negatively affect the human well-being as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress. The currently available information about the multifaceted response to heat stress within different parts of the intestine is limited, especially in avian species. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the heat stress-induced sequence of events in the intestines of chickens. Furthermore, the gut health-promoting effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) was investigated in these heat stress-exposed chickens. Chickens were fed a control diet or diet supplemented with 1% or 2.5% GOS (6 days) prior to and during a temperature challenge for 5 days (38-39°C, 8h per day). The parameters measured in different parts of the intestines included the genes (qPCR) HSF1, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-5, ZO-1, occludin, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL-6, IL-8, HO-1, HIF-1α) and their associated proteins HSP70, HSP90 and pan-cadherin (western blots). In addition, IL-6 and IL-8 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA. In the jejunum, HSF3, HSP70, HSP90, E-cadherin, claudin-5, ZO-1, TLR-4, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and HSP70 protein expression were increased after heat stress exposure and a more pronounced increase in gene expression was observed in ileum after heat stress exposure, and in addition HSF1, claudin-1 and HIF-1α mRNA levels were upregulated. Furthermore, the IL-8 plasma levels were decreased in chickens exposed to heat stress. Interestingly, the heat stress-related effects in the jejunum were prevented in chickens fed a GOS diet, while dietary GOS did not alter these effects in ileum. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the differences in susceptibility to heat stress along the intestine, where the most obvious modification in gene expression is observed in ileum, while dietary GOS only prevent the heat stress-related changes in jejunum.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus