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Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

Zhu Z, Pan G, Zhou S, Dai J, Chen X, Tang J, Chen S, Zheng Y, Song J, Xu W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation.After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination.In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

No MeSH data available.


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Number of reported rubella cases by age group.
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pone.0139173.g002: Number of reported rubella cases by age group.

Mentions: On February 25, 2012, a junior high school student from a foreign language school located in the Yixiu district of Anqing city in Anhui province, China, experienced fever and rash and sought treatment in a health center near the school. Rubella was confirmed based on rubella-specific IgM detection, but the detailed epidemiological information regarding this case is unknown. Subsequently, the number of rubella cases in Anqing gradually increased, and the incidence of relevant cases peaked from the 14th to the 16th week in 2012. By July 26, 2012, a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS, http://10.249.1.170/) (Fig 1) of the China CDC, and more than 80% of these were lab-confirmed cases. This rubella outbreak mainly affected students aged 10–19 years (72.2%) who had not received a rubella vaccine (Fig 2). The overall male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Anqing, located in southwest Anhui province, is composed of 3 districts, 7 counties, and 1 county-level city. Geographically, the rubella cases were distributed across all administrative areas of Anqing, except for Taihu County. The majority of cases (77.6%) were reported from Daguan (73 cases), Yingjiang (62 cases), and Yixiu Districts (52 cases), which are located in the eastern part of the city, and the epidemic spread westward. Susong (1 case) and Yuexi counties (2 cases), located in the western part of the city, had the fewest cases (Fig 3). To interrupt viral transmission, an immunization campaign against rubella was carried out among the citywide school students at the beginning of April. Subsequently, the number of rubella cases dramatically decreased to zero, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination.


Imported Genotype 2B Rubella Virus Caused the 2012 Outbreak in Anqing City, China.

Zhu Z, Pan G, Zhou S, Dai J, Chen X, Tang J, Chen S, Zheng Y, Song J, Xu W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Number of reported rubella cases by age group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581689&req=5

pone.0139173.g002: Number of reported rubella cases by age group.
Mentions: On February 25, 2012, a junior high school student from a foreign language school located in the Yixiu district of Anqing city in Anhui province, China, experienced fever and rash and sought treatment in a health center near the school. Rubella was confirmed based on rubella-specific IgM detection, but the detailed epidemiological information regarding this case is unknown. Subsequently, the number of rubella cases in Anqing gradually increased, and the incidence of relevant cases peaked from the 14th to the 16th week in 2012. By July 26, 2012, a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS, http://10.249.1.170/) (Fig 1) of the China CDC, and more than 80% of these were lab-confirmed cases. This rubella outbreak mainly affected students aged 10–19 years (72.2%) who had not received a rubella vaccine (Fig 2). The overall male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Anqing, located in southwest Anhui province, is composed of 3 districts, 7 counties, and 1 county-level city. Geographically, the rubella cases were distributed across all administrative areas of Anqing, except for Taihu County. The majority of cases (77.6%) were reported from Daguan (73 cases), Yingjiang (62 cases), and Yixiu Districts (52 cases), which are located in the eastern part of the city, and the epidemic spread westward. Susong (1 case) and Yuexi counties (2 cases), located in the western part of the city, had the fewest cases (Fig 3). To interrupt viral transmission, an immunization campaign against rubella was carried out among the citywide school students at the beginning of April. Subsequently, the number of rubella cases dramatically decreased to zero, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination.

Bottom Line: However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation.After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination.In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
A rubella outbreak occurred in Anqing city of Anhui province, China, from February to July of 2012, and a total of 241 clinically diagnosed or lab-confirmed patients were reported. The highest number of rubella cases during this outbreak was recorded in teenagers between 10 and 19 years of age who had not previously received the rubella vaccine. Genotyping results indicated that the genotype 2B rubella virus (RV) was responsible for the outbreak. However, a phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotype 2B RVs isolated in Anqing City were not related to 2B RVs found in other cities of Anhui province and in other provinces of China, thus providing evidence for importation. After importation, the transmission of Anqing RVs was interrupted owing to an effective immunization campaign against rubella, suggesting the timeliness and effectiveness of contingency vaccination. Strengthening rubella surveillance, including the integration of epidemiologic information and laboratory data, is a vital strategy for rubella control and elimination. In addition, except for routine immunization, targeted supplementary immunization activities aimed at susceptible groups according to sero-epidemiological surveillance data also play a key role in stopping the continuous transmission of rubella viruses and in preventing further congenital rubella syndrome cases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus