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Effects of Age and Estrogen on Skeletal Gene Expression in Humans as Assessed by RNA Sequencing.

Farr JN, Roforth MM, Fujita K, Nicks KM, Cunningham JM, Atkinson EJ, Therneau TM, McCready LK, Peterson JM, Drake MT, Monroe DG, Khosla S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the LEF1 transcription factor, which is a classical downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was significantly downregulated in the bones from the old versus young women; consistent with this, LEF1 binding sites were significantly enriched in the promoter regions of the differentially expressed genes in the old versus young women, suggesting that aging was associated with alterations in Wnt signaling in bone.In conclusion, our data demonstrate that aging alters a substantial portion of the skeletal transcriptome, whereas E therapy appears to have significant, albeit less wide-ranging effects.These data provide a valuable resource for the potential identification of novel biomarkers associated with age-related bone loss and also highlight potential pathways that could be targeted to treat osteoporosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, United States of America; Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Precise delineation of the specific genes and pathways altered with aging and estrogen (E) therapy may lead to new skeletal biomarkers and the development of novel bone therapeutics. Previous human bone studies, however, have been limited by only examining pre-specified genes and pathways. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq), on the other hand, offers an unbiased approach to examine the entire transcriptome. Here we present an RNAseq analysis of human bone samples, obtained from iliac crest needle biopsies, to yield the first in vivo interrogation of all genes and pathways that may be altered in bone with aging and E therapy in humans. 58 healthy women were studied, including 19 young women (mean age ± SD, 30.3 ± 5.4 years), 19 old women (73.1 ± 6.6 years), and 20 old women treated with 3 weeks of E therapy (70.5 ± 5.2 years). Using generally accepted criteria (false discovery rate [q] < 0.10), aging altered a total of 678 genes and 12 pathways, including a subset known to regulate bone metabolism (e.g., Notch). Interestingly, the LEF1 transcription factor, which is a classical downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was significantly downregulated in the bones from the old versus young women; consistent with this, LEF1 binding sites were significantly enriched in the promoter regions of the differentially expressed genes in the old versus young women, suggesting that aging was associated with alterations in Wnt signaling in bone. Further, of the 21 unique genes altered in bone by E therapy, the expression of INHBB (encoding for the inhibin, beta B polypeptide), which decreased with aging (by 0.6-fold), was restored to young adult levels in response to E therapy. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that aging alters a substantial portion of the skeletal transcriptome, whereas E therapy appears to have significant, albeit less wide-ranging effects. These data provide a valuable resource for the potential identification of novel biomarkers associated with age-related bone loss and also highlight potential pathways that could be targeted to treat osteoporosis.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02349113.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of age and estrogen (E) on gene expression of INHBA and INHBB.Bone INHBB and INHBA gene expression levels by RNAseq in the old relative to young women (A) and in the E-treated relative to untreated old women (B). Data are shown as median fold changes (95% CIs). †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.001.
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pone.0138347.g005: Effects of age and estrogen (E) on gene expression of INHBA and INHBB.Bone INHBB and INHBA gene expression levels by RNAseq in the old relative to young women (A) and in the E-treated relative to untreated old women (B). Data are shown as median fold changes (95% CIs). †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.001.

Mentions: Finally, we focused on the 21 genes in bone tissue altered in old women in response to E therapy as revealed by RNAseq (S2 Table). Particularly noteworthy were the marked increases in expression of LGR5 (by 3.9-fold) and PPARGC1A (by 3.7-fold), while the expression of C19orf80 (coding for Betatrophin) decreased (by 0.5-fold) in response to E therapy. Furthermore, the expression of INHBB (inhibin, beta B), which significantly decreased with aging (Fig 5A; q < 0.001), was restored to young adult levels (Fig 5B; q < 0.001) in response to E therapy. Correspondingly, expression of INHBA (inhibin, beta A) followed the same pattern with aging (Fig 5A; p < 0.01; q = 0.118) and in response to E therapy (Fig 5B; p < 0.001; q = 0.179), although these gene expression changes did not meet FDR criteria (q < 0.10).


Effects of Age and Estrogen on Skeletal Gene Expression in Humans as Assessed by RNA Sequencing.

Farr JN, Roforth MM, Fujita K, Nicks KM, Cunningham JM, Atkinson EJ, Therneau TM, McCready LK, Peterson JM, Drake MT, Monroe DG, Khosla S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effects of age and estrogen (E) on gene expression of INHBA and INHBB.Bone INHBB and INHBA gene expression levels by RNAseq in the old relative to young women (A) and in the E-treated relative to untreated old women (B). Data are shown as median fold changes (95% CIs). †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581624&req=5

pone.0138347.g005: Effects of age and estrogen (E) on gene expression of INHBA and INHBB.Bone INHBB and INHBA gene expression levels by RNAseq in the old relative to young women (A) and in the E-treated relative to untreated old women (B). Data are shown as median fold changes (95% CIs). †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.001.
Mentions: Finally, we focused on the 21 genes in bone tissue altered in old women in response to E therapy as revealed by RNAseq (S2 Table). Particularly noteworthy were the marked increases in expression of LGR5 (by 3.9-fold) and PPARGC1A (by 3.7-fold), while the expression of C19orf80 (coding for Betatrophin) decreased (by 0.5-fold) in response to E therapy. Furthermore, the expression of INHBB (inhibin, beta B), which significantly decreased with aging (Fig 5A; q < 0.001), was restored to young adult levels (Fig 5B; q < 0.001) in response to E therapy. Correspondingly, expression of INHBA (inhibin, beta A) followed the same pattern with aging (Fig 5A; p < 0.01; q = 0.118) and in response to E therapy (Fig 5B; p < 0.001; q = 0.179), although these gene expression changes did not meet FDR criteria (q < 0.10).

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the LEF1 transcription factor, which is a classical downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was significantly downregulated in the bones from the old versus young women; consistent with this, LEF1 binding sites were significantly enriched in the promoter regions of the differentially expressed genes in the old versus young women, suggesting that aging was associated with alterations in Wnt signaling in bone.In conclusion, our data demonstrate that aging alters a substantial portion of the skeletal transcriptome, whereas E therapy appears to have significant, albeit less wide-ranging effects.These data provide a valuable resource for the potential identification of novel biomarkers associated with age-related bone loss and also highlight potential pathways that could be targeted to treat osteoporosis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, United States of America; Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Unlabelled: Precise delineation of the specific genes and pathways altered with aging and estrogen (E) therapy may lead to new skeletal biomarkers and the development of novel bone therapeutics. Previous human bone studies, however, have been limited by only examining pre-specified genes and pathways. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq), on the other hand, offers an unbiased approach to examine the entire transcriptome. Here we present an RNAseq analysis of human bone samples, obtained from iliac crest needle biopsies, to yield the first in vivo interrogation of all genes and pathways that may be altered in bone with aging and E therapy in humans. 58 healthy women were studied, including 19 young women (mean age ± SD, 30.3 ± 5.4 years), 19 old women (73.1 ± 6.6 years), and 20 old women treated with 3 weeks of E therapy (70.5 ± 5.2 years). Using generally accepted criteria (false discovery rate [q] < 0.10), aging altered a total of 678 genes and 12 pathways, including a subset known to regulate bone metabolism (e.g., Notch). Interestingly, the LEF1 transcription factor, which is a classical downstream target of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, was significantly downregulated in the bones from the old versus young women; consistent with this, LEF1 binding sites were significantly enriched in the promoter regions of the differentially expressed genes in the old versus young women, suggesting that aging was associated with alterations in Wnt signaling in bone. Further, of the 21 unique genes altered in bone by E therapy, the expression of INHBB (encoding for the inhibin, beta B polypeptide), which decreased with aging (by 0.6-fold), was restored to young adult levels in response to E therapy. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that aging alters a substantial portion of the skeletal transcriptome, whereas E therapy appears to have significant, albeit less wide-ranging effects. These data provide a valuable resource for the potential identification of novel biomarkers associated with age-related bone loss and also highlight potential pathways that could be targeted to treat osteoporosis.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02349113.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus