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Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

Seki Y, Kikuchi Y, Kimura Y, Yoshimoto R, Takahashi M, Aburai K, Kanai Y, Ruike T, Iwabata K, Sugawara F, Sakai H, Abe M, Sakaguchi K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose.Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva.We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Crystal structure analysis of cellulose.The crystal structure of cellulose in the presence of cattle saliva (Saliva(+)) or in the absence of cattle saliva (Saliva(-)) was analyzed by (a) X-ray diffraction and (b) FT-IR.
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pone.0138902.g006: Crystal structure analysis of cellulose.The crystal structure of cellulose in the presence of cattle saliva (Saliva(+)) or in the absence of cattle saliva (Saliva(-)) was analyzed by (a) X-ray diffraction and (b) FT-IR.

Mentions: Recent studies demonstrated that pretreatment of cellulose with certain types of compounds altered its crystal structure and enhanced its degradation. For example, pretreatment with liquid ammonia or amine solution transformed cellulose I structure into cellulose III structure [16, 17]. As any change in the cellulose crystal structure could be detected using the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy [18, 19], we employed these two spectroscopic methods to examine the crystal structure of cellulose in the presence (Saliva (+)) and absence (Saliva (-)) of cattle saliva in order to determine whether the addition of cattle saliva would cause any change in the crystal structure of cellulose, and the results are shown in Fig 6. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed two peaks in both mixtures: a broad peak in which 2θ was varied from 15 to 18 degree, and a sharp peak in which 2θ was approximately 23 degree (Fig 6A). No significant difference was observed between the X-ray spectra of Saliva (+) and Saliva (-) samples. FT-IR spectra of both Saliva (+) and Saliva (-) samples showed many peaks appearing at different wavenumbers (Fig 6B). However, no differences in peak intensities and spectrum shapes were observed between the Saliva (+) and Saliva (-) samples. Taken together, these results suggested that addition of cattle saliva to cellulose did not cause any macroscopic change in the crystal structure of micro-crystalline cellulose.


Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

Seki Y, Kikuchi Y, Kimura Y, Yoshimoto R, Takahashi M, Aburai K, Kanai Y, Ruike T, Iwabata K, Sugawara F, Sakai H, Abe M, Sakaguchi K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Crystal structure analysis of cellulose.The crystal structure of cellulose in the presence of cattle saliva (Saliva(+)) or in the absence of cattle saliva (Saliva(-)) was analyzed by (a) X-ray diffraction and (b) FT-IR.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581621&req=5

pone.0138902.g006: Crystal structure analysis of cellulose.The crystal structure of cellulose in the presence of cattle saliva (Saliva(+)) or in the absence of cattle saliva (Saliva(-)) was analyzed by (a) X-ray diffraction and (b) FT-IR.
Mentions: Recent studies demonstrated that pretreatment of cellulose with certain types of compounds altered its crystal structure and enhanced its degradation. For example, pretreatment with liquid ammonia or amine solution transformed cellulose I structure into cellulose III structure [16, 17]. As any change in the cellulose crystal structure could be detected using the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy [18, 19], we employed these two spectroscopic methods to examine the crystal structure of cellulose in the presence (Saliva (+)) and absence (Saliva (-)) of cattle saliva in order to determine whether the addition of cattle saliva would cause any change in the crystal structure of cellulose, and the results are shown in Fig 6. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed two peaks in both mixtures: a broad peak in which 2θ was varied from 15 to 18 degree, and a sharp peak in which 2θ was approximately 23 degree (Fig 6A). No significant difference was observed between the X-ray spectra of Saliva (+) and Saliva (-) samples. FT-IR spectra of both Saliva (+) and Saliva (-) samples showed many peaks appearing at different wavenumbers (Fig 6B). However, no differences in peak intensities and spectrum shapes were observed between the Saliva (+) and Saliva (-) samples. Taken together, these results suggested that addition of cattle saliva to cellulose did not cause any macroscopic change in the crystal structure of micro-crystalline cellulose.

Bottom Line: Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose.Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva.We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus