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Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

Jadoon S, Karim S, Bin Asad MH, Akram MR, Khan AK, Malik A, Chen C, Murtaza G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR.The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents.Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan, Hewler 44003, Iraq.

ABSTRACT
The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Melanin synthesis involving tyrosinase and a series of oxidative reactions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig5: Melanin synthesis involving tyrosinase and a series of oxidative reactions.

Mentions: The normal human skin maintains homeostasis of water and other materials in body, principally due to the presence of stratum corneum [66]. The stratum corneum, a water barrier in function, consists primarily of lipids, that is, ceramides, cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, stearyl esters, and cholesterol sulfate. The cholesterol sulfate is responsible for intercellular adhesion, and its high concentration is known to inhibit desquamation. The synthesis of these lipids is affected by many factors, mainly related to enzymes, fatty acids, environment, cosmetics, and water contents. Other important constituents of stratum corneum are proteins (e.g., involucrin and loricrin), enzymes, and water (approximately 30%) [67]. Depending upon natural moisturizing factor of skin cells, some fraction of this water is tightly held in stratum corneum and is responsible for skin elasticity. The disturbance in level or nature of any of lipids, proteins, enzymes, and water might lead to skin problems including wrinkled and dry skin. Dry skin might be due to excessive transepithelial water loss that could be retained for maintaining the proper skin hydration by using skin moisturizer. It might exercise softening effect on skin. The skin moisturizer, however, should be inert, nonirritant, stable, and sterile [68]. On the other hand, skin wrinkles might be due to distorted elastic fibers, diminished collagen contents, and uneven types I and III collagen. There is decrease in type IV collagen protein at the wrinkle's base; it could be due to activation of MMPs, the collagen-degrading enzymes. Alternatively, the activation of MMPs may lead to upregulation of collagenase, gelatinase, and stromelysin [69]. Thus, the skin wrinkles could be treated by using topical formulations loaded with the bioactive compounds having potential of inhibiting MMPs, thus increasing the collagen level. Moreover, skin colour depends on the kind and allocation of melanin in the skin, in addition to number and amount of melanocytes [67, 70]. Figure 5 shows the melanin synthesis involving tyrosinase and a series of oxidative reactions that could be inhibited by usage of skin-whitening agents. Thus, the stratum corneum is a primary target site for topical phytoantioxidants for skin protection against UVR-mediated oxidative stress [71]. The phytoantioxidants might have capability of stimulating the regeneration of stratum corneum to protect itself and the underlying epidermis and dermis from the injurious effects of UVR and promote growth of the skin [72, 73].


Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

Jadoon S, Karim S, Bin Asad MH, Akram MR, Khan AK, Malik A, Chen C, Murtaza G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Melanin synthesis involving tyrosinase and a series of oxidative reactions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581564&req=5

fig5: Melanin synthesis involving tyrosinase and a series of oxidative reactions.
Mentions: The normal human skin maintains homeostasis of water and other materials in body, principally due to the presence of stratum corneum [66]. The stratum corneum, a water barrier in function, consists primarily of lipids, that is, ceramides, cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, stearyl esters, and cholesterol sulfate. The cholesterol sulfate is responsible for intercellular adhesion, and its high concentration is known to inhibit desquamation. The synthesis of these lipids is affected by many factors, mainly related to enzymes, fatty acids, environment, cosmetics, and water contents. Other important constituents of stratum corneum are proteins (e.g., involucrin and loricrin), enzymes, and water (approximately 30%) [67]. Depending upon natural moisturizing factor of skin cells, some fraction of this water is tightly held in stratum corneum and is responsible for skin elasticity. The disturbance in level or nature of any of lipids, proteins, enzymes, and water might lead to skin problems including wrinkled and dry skin. Dry skin might be due to excessive transepithelial water loss that could be retained for maintaining the proper skin hydration by using skin moisturizer. It might exercise softening effect on skin. The skin moisturizer, however, should be inert, nonirritant, stable, and sterile [68]. On the other hand, skin wrinkles might be due to distorted elastic fibers, diminished collagen contents, and uneven types I and III collagen. There is decrease in type IV collagen protein at the wrinkle's base; it could be due to activation of MMPs, the collagen-degrading enzymes. Alternatively, the activation of MMPs may lead to upregulation of collagenase, gelatinase, and stromelysin [69]. Thus, the skin wrinkles could be treated by using topical formulations loaded with the bioactive compounds having potential of inhibiting MMPs, thus increasing the collagen level. Moreover, skin colour depends on the kind and allocation of melanin in the skin, in addition to number and amount of melanocytes [67, 70]. Figure 5 shows the melanin synthesis involving tyrosinase and a series of oxidative reactions that could be inhibited by usage of skin-whitening agents. Thus, the stratum corneum is a primary target site for topical phytoantioxidants for skin protection against UVR-mediated oxidative stress [71]. The phytoantioxidants might have capability of stimulating the regeneration of stratum corneum to protect itself and the underlying epidermis and dermis from the injurious effects of UVR and promote growth of the skin [72, 73].

Bottom Line: These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR.The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents.Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan, Hewler 44003, Iraq.

ABSTRACT
The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus