Limits...
Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

Jadoon S, Karim S, Bin Asad MH, Akram MR, Khan AK, Malik A, Chen C, Murtaza G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Bottom Line: These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR.The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents.Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan, Hewler 44003, Iraq.

ABSTRACT
The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Clinical appearance of extrinsic (a) and intrinsic (b) aging of skin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581564&req=5

fig1: Clinical appearance of extrinsic (a) and intrinsic (b) aging of skin.

Mentions: Skin aging is a dermatologic change that progresses as a person ages or is exposed to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) if no treatment is adopted. The extensive research activities are focused on this skin concern that involves the appearance of unpleasant, observable marks on skin surface due to proteolysis of cutaneous elastic fibers resulting in the reduced cell functions [1]. Skin aging can be divided into two types, that is, intrinsic aging or chronological aging (inevitable phenomenon) and extrinsic or premature or photoaging (evitable phenomenon) owing to the physiological and environmental factors, respectively [2–4]. Morphologically, photoaging is characterized by dry, rough, pigmented, and abraded skin especially of face and hands in individuals who live in sunny geographical regions and are chronically exposed to direct sunlight (Figure 1). Conversely, fine, smooth wrinkles on dry, pale skin impart the characteristics of intrinsic aging [1]. Diagnostically, intrinsic skin aging is identified by seborrheic keratosis which is not a biomarker of photoaging [5]. Pathologically, the photodamaged skin shows vascular damage that is absent in intrinsically aged skin. An increased skin vascularization and angiogenesis are observed in the photoaged skin [6]. Microscopically, thicker epidermis is another feature of the photoaged skin [4]. It is noteworthy that the strength and resiliency of skin depend on proper and uniform arrangement of collagen (types I and III) fibrils and elastin in the dermis [7]; thus, collagen deficiency may result in skin aging due to the production of collagenase and thymine dimer in skin on exposure to UVR. Histologically, the extracellular matrix of intrinsically aged skin possesses diminished levels of elastin [2], while the elastin amassing in the photoaged skin is observed just below the dermal-epidermal junction [8]. Elastin is a fibrous protein that is reduced in thickness from deeper to superficial dermis. It provides natural elasticity and strength to human body. It also plays a role in tissue repair [9]. The basic and the major molecular unit involved in the construction of human skin is collagen that is produced from procollagen. Collagen is a protein that is present in the connective tissues of human body. The dermal fibroblasts generate the procollagen under the effect of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), where TGF-β and AP-1 govern the production and breakdown of collagen, respectively. Under the effect of UVR received from sun, the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) enzymes secreted by keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and other cells promotes breakdown of collagen by AP-1 as well as decrease in collagen synthesis (Figure 1) [10, 11]. It results in breakdown of the connective tissues during photoaging [12–14]. During adulthood, there is about 1% decrease in collagen content per year, but this rate is higher in the aged people since old age people have higher levels of MMP [7].


Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

Jadoon S, Karim S, Bin Asad MH, Akram MR, Khan AK, Malik A, Chen C, Murtaza G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2015)

Clinical appearance of extrinsic (a) and intrinsic (b) aging of skin.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581564&req=5

fig1: Clinical appearance of extrinsic (a) and intrinsic (b) aging of skin.
Mentions: Skin aging is a dermatologic change that progresses as a person ages or is exposed to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) if no treatment is adopted. The extensive research activities are focused on this skin concern that involves the appearance of unpleasant, observable marks on skin surface due to proteolysis of cutaneous elastic fibers resulting in the reduced cell functions [1]. Skin aging can be divided into two types, that is, intrinsic aging or chronological aging (inevitable phenomenon) and extrinsic or premature or photoaging (evitable phenomenon) owing to the physiological and environmental factors, respectively [2–4]. Morphologically, photoaging is characterized by dry, rough, pigmented, and abraded skin especially of face and hands in individuals who live in sunny geographical regions and are chronically exposed to direct sunlight (Figure 1). Conversely, fine, smooth wrinkles on dry, pale skin impart the characteristics of intrinsic aging [1]. Diagnostically, intrinsic skin aging is identified by seborrheic keratosis which is not a biomarker of photoaging [5]. Pathologically, the photodamaged skin shows vascular damage that is absent in intrinsically aged skin. An increased skin vascularization and angiogenesis are observed in the photoaged skin [6]. Microscopically, thicker epidermis is another feature of the photoaged skin [4]. It is noteworthy that the strength and resiliency of skin depend on proper and uniform arrangement of collagen (types I and III) fibrils and elastin in the dermis [7]; thus, collagen deficiency may result in skin aging due to the production of collagenase and thymine dimer in skin on exposure to UVR. Histologically, the extracellular matrix of intrinsically aged skin possesses diminished levels of elastin [2], while the elastin amassing in the photoaged skin is observed just below the dermal-epidermal junction [8]. Elastin is a fibrous protein that is reduced in thickness from deeper to superficial dermis. It provides natural elasticity and strength to human body. It also plays a role in tissue repair [9]. The basic and the major molecular unit involved in the construction of human skin is collagen that is produced from procollagen. Collagen is a protein that is present in the connective tissues of human body. The dermal fibroblasts generate the procollagen under the effect of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), where TGF-β and AP-1 govern the production and breakdown of collagen, respectively. Under the effect of UVR received from sun, the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) enzymes secreted by keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and other cells promotes breakdown of collagen by AP-1 as well as decrease in collagen synthesis (Figure 1) [10, 11]. It results in breakdown of the connective tissues during photoaging [12–14]. During adulthood, there is about 1% decrease in collagen content per year, but this rate is higher in the aged people since old age people have higher levels of MMP [7].

Bottom Line: These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR.The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents.Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural Resources Engineering and Management, University of Kurdistan, Hewler 44003, Iraq.

ABSTRACT
The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus