TDR Technique for Estimating the Intensity of Evapotranspiration of Turfgrasses. Janik G, Wolski K, Daniel A, Albert M, Skierucha W, Wilczek A, Szyszkowski P, Walczak A - ScientificWorldJournal (2015) Bottom Line: Those parameters are the temperature and the volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm.Evapotranspiration has the character of a modified logistic function with empirical parameters.It assumes the form ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) = A/(1 + B · e (-C · (θ (2.5 cm) · T (2.5 cm)), where: ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) is evapotranspiration [mm · h(-1)], θ (2.5 cm) is volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm [m(3) · m(-3)], T (2.5 cm) is soil temperature at the depth of 2.5 cm [°C], and A, B, and C are empirical coefficients calculated individually for each of the grass species [mm · h(1)], and [-], [(m(3) · m(-3) · °C)(-1)]. View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Protection and Development, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Plac Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland. ABSTRACTThe paper presents a method for precise estimation of evapotranspiration of selected turfgrass species. The evapotranspiration functions, whose domains are only two relatively easy to measure parameters, were developed separately for each of the grass species. Those parameters are the temperature and the volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm. Evapotranspiration has the character of a modified logistic function with empirical parameters. It assumes the form ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) = A/(1 + B · e (-C · (θ (2.5 cm) · T (2.5 cm)), where: ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) is evapotranspiration [mm · h(-1)], θ (2.5 cm) is volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm [m(3) · m(-3)], T (2.5 cm) is soil temperature at the depth of 2.5 cm [°C], and A, B, and C are empirical coefficients calculated individually for each of the grass species [mm · h(1)], and [-], [(m(3) · m(-3) · °C)(-1)]. The values of evapotranspiration calculated on the basis of the presented function can be used as input data for the design of systems for the automatic control of irrigation systems ensuring optimum moisture conditions in the active layer of lawn swards. No MeSH data available. Related in: MedlinePlus © Copyright Policy - open-access Related In: Results  -  Collection getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581558&req=5 .flowplayer { width: px; height: px; } fig4: Dynamics of diurnal evapotranspiration in the period of 11–21.06.2013; ETRn is evapotranspiration on nth day. Mentions: The maximum differences are found in layer 3. The initial volumetric moisture for Niweta is θ3NW = 0.39 m3·m−3 and for cult. Sawa θ3S = 0.31 m3·m−3. The differences may be caused by a lack of homogeneity of the soil profile, which occurs even in soils with the structure accepted as homogeneous. This regularity occurs for points situated even at small distances from each other [27]. In the period under analysis, the mean soil temperature at the depth of 2.5 cm, that is, in the turf horizon, was from 24.9°C for cult. Sawa to 26.0°C for cult. Niweta. The maximum temperature was very high. As an example, for cult. Niweta T1NW = 45.5°C on the 18th of June (8th day). Significant drops of soil water content were observed, of course, during the daytime periods. For instance, for the lawn based on cult. Niweta, in layer 1 on the 13th of June (3rd day), the drop of moisture between the hours of 5:00 and 19:00 was 0.035 m3·m−3 and for cult. Nira 0.04 m3·m−3. It should be noted that the rate of the decrease was not uniform throughout the whole period. As an example, in layer 1 on the 12th of June (2nd day) the decrease for cv. Sawa was 0.041 m3·m−3·day−1 and on the 21st of June (11th day) only 0.001 m3·m−3·day−1. This was caused by the fact that on the 11th day the volumetric moisture of the soil column was lower than on the 2nd day. This shows that the diurnal evapotranspiration is the lower, the lower the volumetric moisture of the soil profile. That regularity occurs for each variety. The dynamics of diurnal evapotranspiration for each of the grasses is presented in Figure 4.

TDR Technique for Estimating the Intensity of Evapotranspiration of Turfgrasses.

Janik G, Wolski K, Daniel A, Albert M, Skierucha W, Wilczek A, Szyszkowski P, Walczak A - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581558&req=5

fig4: Dynamics of diurnal evapotranspiration in the period of 11–21.06.2013; ETRn is evapotranspiration on nth day.
Mentions: The maximum differences are found in layer 3. The initial volumetric moisture for Niweta is θ3NW = 0.39 m3·m−3 and for cult. Sawa θ3S = 0.31 m3·m−3. The differences may be caused by a lack of homogeneity of the soil profile, which occurs even in soils with the structure accepted as homogeneous. This regularity occurs for points situated even at small distances from each other [27]. In the period under analysis, the mean soil temperature at the depth of 2.5 cm, that is, in the turf horizon, was from 24.9°C for cult. Sawa to 26.0°C for cult. Niweta. The maximum temperature was very high. As an example, for cult. Niweta T1NW = 45.5°C on the 18th of June (8th day). Significant drops of soil water content were observed, of course, during the daytime periods. For instance, for the lawn based on cult. Niweta, in layer 1 on the 13th of June (3rd day), the drop of moisture between the hours of 5:00 and 19:00 was 0.035 m3·m−3 and for cult. Nira 0.04 m3·m−3. It should be noted that the rate of the decrease was not uniform throughout the whole period. As an example, in layer 1 on the 12th of June (2nd day) the decrease for cv. Sawa was 0.041 m3·m−3·day−1 and on the 21st of June (11th day) only 0.001 m3·m−3·day−1. This was caused by the fact that on the 11th day the volumetric moisture of the soil column was lower than on the 2nd day. This shows that the diurnal evapotranspiration is the lower, the lower the volumetric moisture of the soil profile. That regularity occurs for each variety. The dynamics of diurnal evapotranspiration for each of the grasses is presented in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: Those parameters are the temperature and the volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm.Evapotranspiration has the character of a modified logistic function with empirical parameters.It assumes the form ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) = A/(1 + B · e (-C · (θ (2.5 cm) · T (2.5 cm)), where: ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) is evapotranspiration [mm · h(-1)], θ (2.5 cm) is volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm [m(3) · m(-3)], T (2.5 cm) is soil temperature at the depth of 2.5 cm [°C], and A, B, and C are empirical coefficients calculated individually for each of the grass species [mm · h(1)], and [-], [(m(3) · m(-3) · °C)(-1)].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Protection and Development, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Plac Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The paper presents a method for precise estimation of evapotranspiration of selected turfgrass species. The evapotranspiration functions, whose domains are only two relatively easy to measure parameters, were developed separately for each of the grass species. Those parameters are the temperature and the volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm. Evapotranspiration has the character of a modified logistic function with empirical parameters. It assumes the form ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) = A/(1 + B · e (-C · (θ (2.5 cm) · T (2.5 cm)), where: ETR(θ (2.5 cm), T (2.5 cm)) is evapotranspiration [mm · h(-1)], θ (2.5 cm) is volumetric moisture of soil at the depth of 2.5 cm [m(3) · m(-3)], T (2.5 cm) is soil temperature at the depth of 2.5 cm [°C], and A, B, and C are empirical coefficients calculated individually for each of the grass species [mm · h(1)], and [-], [(m(3) · m(-3) · °C)(-1)]. The values of evapotranspiration calculated on the basis of the presented function can be used as input data for the design of systems for the automatic control of irrigation systems ensuring optimum moisture conditions in the active layer of lawn swards.

No MeSH data available.

Related in: MedlinePlus