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Extraction of Peptidoglycan from L. paracasei subp. Paracasei X12 and Its Preliminary Mechanisms of Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death in HT-29 Cells.

Tian PJ, Li BL, Shan YJ, Zhang JN, Chen JY, Yu M, Zhang LW - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevated.Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Food Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150000, China. tianpei0202@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
L. paracasei subp. paracasei X12 was previously isolated from a Chinese traditional fermented cheese with anticancer activities and probiotic potential. Herein, the integral peptidoglycan (X12-PG) was extracted by a modified trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method. X12-PG contained the four representative amino acids Asp, Glu, Ala and Lys, and displayed the similar lysozyme sensitivity, UV-visible scanning spectrum and molecular weight as the peptidoglycan standard. X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevated. Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER. The present results may enlighten the prospect of probiotics in the prevention of colon cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Structural damages of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after treatment of X12-PG. (A–D) were respectively treated with 0, 400, 800, 1600 μg/mL X12-PG for 48 h. Cells were observed by TEM (×20,000). The encircled regions show the location of ER.
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ijms-16-20033-f004: Structural damages of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after treatment of X12-PG. (A–D) were respectively treated with 0, 400, 800, 1600 μg/mL X12-PG for 48 h. Cells were observed by TEM (×20,000). The encircled regions show the location of ER.

Mentions: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle that fulfills a multiple of cellular functions. In most cases, cytoplasmic ER morphologically shapes like thin lines (Figure 4A). Compared with the control, when treated with 400 μg/mL X12-PG, ER became darker and swelled. Moreover, hair-like projections on the membrane were gradually distorted and reduced (Figure 4B). X12-PG of 800 μg/mL led to the formation of vacuoles and clearer ER dilation (Figure 4C). At the dose of 1600 μg/mL, the ER were further swelled in larger quantities (Figure 4D). These results suggest that X12-PG was able to alter structural features of ER and eventually damage its physiological function.


Extraction of Peptidoglycan from L. paracasei subp. Paracasei X12 and Its Preliminary Mechanisms of Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death in HT-29 Cells.

Tian PJ, Li BL, Shan YJ, Zhang JN, Chen JY, Yu M, Zhang LW - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Structural damages of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after treatment of X12-PG. (A–D) were respectively treated with 0, 400, 800, 1600 μg/mL X12-PG for 48 h. Cells were observed by TEM (×20,000). The encircled regions show the location of ER.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581339&req=5

ijms-16-20033-f004: Structural damages of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) after treatment of X12-PG. (A–D) were respectively treated with 0, 400, 800, 1600 μg/mL X12-PG for 48 h. Cells were observed by TEM (×20,000). The encircled regions show the location of ER.
Mentions: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle that fulfills a multiple of cellular functions. In most cases, cytoplasmic ER morphologically shapes like thin lines (Figure 4A). Compared with the control, when treated with 400 μg/mL X12-PG, ER became darker and swelled. Moreover, hair-like projections on the membrane were gradually distorted and reduced (Figure 4B). X12-PG of 800 μg/mL led to the formation of vacuoles and clearer ER dilation (Figure 4C). At the dose of 1600 μg/mL, the ER were further swelled in larger quantities (Figure 4D). These results suggest that X12-PG was able to alter structural features of ER and eventually damage its physiological function.

Bottom Line: X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevated.Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Food Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150000, China. tianpei0202@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
L. paracasei subp. paracasei X12 was previously isolated from a Chinese traditional fermented cheese with anticancer activities and probiotic potential. Herein, the integral peptidoglycan (X12-PG) was extracted by a modified trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method. X12-PG contained the four representative amino acids Asp, Glu, Ala and Lys, and displayed the similar lysozyme sensitivity, UV-visible scanning spectrum and molecular weight as the peptidoglycan standard. X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevated. Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER. The present results may enlighten the prospect of probiotics in the prevention of colon cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus