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Current Status on Stem Cells and Cancers of the Gastric Epithelium.

Hoffmann W - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment.However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations.This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany. werner.hoffmann@med.ovgu.de.

ABSTRACT
Gastric cancer is still a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in spite of declining incidence. Gastric cancers are, essentially, adenocarcinomas and one of the strongest risk factors is still infection with Helicobacter pylori. Within the last years, it became clear that gastric self-renewal and carcinogenesis are intimately linked, particularly during chronic inflammatory conditions. Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment. However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations. As in many other tumors, cancer stem cells have also been characterized for gastric cancer. This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the two gross types of human gastric units and their continual, bidirectional self-renewal from gastric progenitor cells (GPCs)/stem cells. Shown are the major epithelial cell types and some of their characteristic secretory products such as MUC, mucins; TFF peptides, FCGBP, IgG Fc binding protein; GKN, gastrokines; LYZ, lysozyme; LIPF, gastric lipase, PGA and PGC, pepsinogens; GIF, intrinsic factor; and HCl, hydrochloric acid; as observed in the classical fundic and antral units, respectively. The various gastric precursor cell (GPCs)/stem cell populations are marked in red: C, CCK2 receptor+; L, Lgr5+; S, Sox2+; T, Troy+; V, villin+; EC(L), enterochromaffin(-like); G, gastrin; SMF, subepithelial myofibroblast; (modified and updated from [15,17]).
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ijms-16-19153-f001: Schematic representation of the two gross types of human gastric units and their continual, bidirectional self-renewal from gastric progenitor cells (GPCs)/stem cells. Shown are the major epithelial cell types and some of their characteristic secretory products such as MUC, mucins; TFF peptides, FCGBP, IgG Fc binding protein; GKN, gastrokines; LYZ, lysozyme; LIPF, gastric lipase, PGA and PGC, pepsinogens; GIF, intrinsic factor; and HCl, hydrochloric acid; as observed in the classical fundic and antral units, respectively. The various gastric precursor cell (GPCs)/stem cell populations are marked in red: C, CCK2 receptor+; L, Lgr5+; S, Sox2+; T, Troy+; V, villin+; EC(L), enterochromaffin(-like); G, gastrin; SMF, subepithelial myofibroblast; (modified and updated from [15,17]).

Mentions: The human gastric mucosa and its glands, i.e., the gastric epithelium, differ histologically along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis and three zones can be distinguished: the cardiac zone, the fundus/corpus zone, and the antral/pyloric zone (Figure 1) [15]. The gastric mucosa contains about 3 million funnel-shaped pits (also called foveolae), which form the entrance into the gastric glands (divided into the isthmus, the neck, and the base). There are two gross types of gastric glands (Figure 1), i.e., a fundic type (mainly in the fundus/corpus zone) and an antral type (in the cardiac and the antral/pyloric zones). Up to seven glands can open into the bottom of a single pit and new glands are generated by gland fission [16]. The combination of a pit and its associated glands is called a gastric unit [16]. Fundic units contain five principal mature epithelial cell types, which are of endodermal origin, whereas the simpler antral units are made of three predominant types of mature epithelial cells (Figure 1). A sheet of subepithelial myofibroblasts (SMF), which are of mesodermal origin, surrounds the gastric epithelium (Figure 1).


Current Status on Stem Cells and Cancers of the Gastric Epithelium.

Hoffmann W - Int J Mol Sci (2015)

Schematic representation of the two gross types of human gastric units and their continual, bidirectional self-renewal from gastric progenitor cells (GPCs)/stem cells. Shown are the major epithelial cell types and some of their characteristic secretory products such as MUC, mucins; TFF peptides, FCGBP, IgG Fc binding protein; GKN, gastrokines; LYZ, lysozyme; LIPF, gastric lipase, PGA and PGC, pepsinogens; GIF, intrinsic factor; and HCl, hydrochloric acid; as observed in the classical fundic and antral units, respectively. The various gastric precursor cell (GPCs)/stem cell populations are marked in red: C, CCK2 receptor+; L, Lgr5+; S, Sox2+; T, Troy+; V, villin+; EC(L), enterochromaffin(-like); G, gastrin; SMF, subepithelial myofibroblast; (modified and updated from [15,17]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4581291&req=5

ijms-16-19153-f001: Schematic representation of the two gross types of human gastric units and their continual, bidirectional self-renewal from gastric progenitor cells (GPCs)/stem cells. Shown are the major epithelial cell types and some of their characteristic secretory products such as MUC, mucins; TFF peptides, FCGBP, IgG Fc binding protein; GKN, gastrokines; LYZ, lysozyme; LIPF, gastric lipase, PGA and PGC, pepsinogens; GIF, intrinsic factor; and HCl, hydrochloric acid; as observed in the classical fundic and antral units, respectively. The various gastric precursor cell (GPCs)/stem cell populations are marked in red: C, CCK2 receptor+; L, Lgr5+; S, Sox2+; T, Troy+; V, villin+; EC(L), enterochromaffin(-like); G, gastrin; SMF, subepithelial myofibroblast; (modified and updated from [15,17]).
Mentions: The human gastric mucosa and its glands, i.e., the gastric epithelium, differ histologically along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis and three zones can be distinguished: the cardiac zone, the fundus/corpus zone, and the antral/pyloric zone (Figure 1) [15]. The gastric mucosa contains about 3 million funnel-shaped pits (also called foveolae), which form the entrance into the gastric glands (divided into the isthmus, the neck, and the base). There are two gross types of gastric glands (Figure 1), i.e., a fundic type (mainly in the fundus/corpus zone) and an antral type (in the cardiac and the antral/pyloric zones). Up to seven glands can open into the bottom of a single pit and new glands are generated by gland fission [16]. The combination of a pit and its associated glands is called a gastric unit [16]. Fundic units contain five principal mature epithelial cell types, which are of endodermal origin, whereas the simpler antral units are made of three predominant types of mature epithelial cells (Figure 1). A sheet of subepithelial myofibroblasts (SMF), which are of mesodermal origin, surrounds the gastric epithelium (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment.However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations.This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany. werner.hoffmann@med.ovgu.de.

ABSTRACT
Gastric cancer is still a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in spite of declining incidence. Gastric cancers are, essentially, adenocarcinomas and one of the strongest risk factors is still infection with Helicobacter pylori. Within the last years, it became clear that gastric self-renewal and carcinogenesis are intimately linked, particularly during chronic inflammatory conditions. Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment. However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations. As in many other tumors, cancer stem cells have also been characterized for gastric cancer. This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus