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CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

Ma X, Ma J, Zhai H, Xin P, Chu J, Qiao Y, Han L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type.Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type.These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483) exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phenotypic characteristics of WT and t483.A, Plants at the tillering stage after removal of soil. B, Mature plant stage. C, Three uppermost internodes from the main tiller. D, Panicles of WT and t483. E, Adaxial side of leaf segments. F, Leaf chlorophyll contents in WT and t483. Values are means ±SD (n = 3) (**P<0.01). G–H, Ultrastructure of chloroplasts in adaxial mesophyll cells of WT (G) and t483 (H). I–J, Thylakoid lamellar structure of WT (I) and t483 (J). C chloroplast, Thy thylakoid lamellar. Scale bars: 10 cm (A, C); 25 cm (B); 5 cm (D); 1cm (E); 0.5 μm (G, H); 0.2 μm (I, J).
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pone.0138934.g002: Phenotypic characteristics of WT and t483.A, Plants at the tillering stage after removal of soil. B, Mature plant stage. C, Three uppermost internodes from the main tiller. D, Panicles of WT and t483. E, Adaxial side of leaf segments. F, Leaf chlorophyll contents in WT and t483. Values are means ±SD (n = 3) (**P<0.01). G–H, Ultrastructure of chloroplasts in adaxial mesophyll cells of WT (G) and t483 (H). I–J, Thylakoid lamellar structure of WT (I) and t483 (J). C chloroplast, Thy thylakoid lamellar. Scale bars: 10 cm (A, C); 25 cm (B); 5 cm (D); 1cm (E); 0.5 μm (G, H); 0.2 μm (I, J).

Mentions: The t483 mutant was also defective at other development stages. At the tillering stage, stature and tiller numbers were reduced compared to WT (Fig 2A). At the mature stage, mutant plants were reduced in height and had smaller and fewer panicles than WT plants (Fig 2B–2D, Table 1). In addition, leaf blade lengths and widths were reduced in the t483 mutant compared to WT. Mutant leaves exhibited pale coloration on the adaxial side (Fig 2E, Table 1) and normal coloration on the abaxial side (data not shown). Spectrophotometric analysis showed that chlorophyll levels were 27% lower in t483 than in WT (Fig 2F). Consistent with the alteration in leaf color, the numbers of thylakoid lamellar and stacked grana in chloroplasts of adaxial mesophyll cells were lower in t483 than in WT, as determined using transmission electron microscopy (Fig 2G–2J). The chloroplast structure and thylakoid lamellar were, however, developed normally in abaxial mesophyll cells of the mutant (data not shown). In summary, the t483 mutant had morphological and growth defects that affected seed germination, plant height, tillering, panicle, leaf color, and leaf and root dimensions.


CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

Ma X, Ma J, Zhai H, Xin P, Chu J, Qiao Y, Han L - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phenotypic characteristics of WT and t483.A, Plants at the tillering stage after removal of soil. B, Mature plant stage. C, Three uppermost internodes from the main tiller. D, Panicles of WT and t483. E, Adaxial side of leaf segments. F, Leaf chlorophyll contents in WT and t483. Values are means ±SD (n = 3) (**P<0.01). G–H, Ultrastructure of chloroplasts in adaxial mesophyll cells of WT (G) and t483 (H). I–J, Thylakoid lamellar structure of WT (I) and t483 (J). C chloroplast, Thy thylakoid lamellar. Scale bars: 10 cm (A, C); 25 cm (B); 5 cm (D); 1cm (E); 0.5 μm (G, H); 0.2 μm (I, J).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4580627&req=5

pone.0138934.g002: Phenotypic characteristics of WT and t483.A, Plants at the tillering stage after removal of soil. B, Mature plant stage. C, Three uppermost internodes from the main tiller. D, Panicles of WT and t483. E, Adaxial side of leaf segments. F, Leaf chlorophyll contents in WT and t483. Values are means ±SD (n = 3) (**P<0.01). G–H, Ultrastructure of chloroplasts in adaxial mesophyll cells of WT (G) and t483 (H). I–J, Thylakoid lamellar structure of WT (I) and t483 (J). C chloroplast, Thy thylakoid lamellar. Scale bars: 10 cm (A, C); 25 cm (B); 5 cm (D); 1cm (E); 0.5 μm (G, H); 0.2 μm (I, J).
Mentions: The t483 mutant was also defective at other development stages. At the tillering stage, stature and tiller numbers were reduced compared to WT (Fig 2A). At the mature stage, mutant plants were reduced in height and had smaller and fewer panicles than WT plants (Fig 2B–2D, Table 1). In addition, leaf blade lengths and widths were reduced in the t483 mutant compared to WT. Mutant leaves exhibited pale coloration on the adaxial side (Fig 2E, Table 1) and normal coloration on the abaxial side (data not shown). Spectrophotometric analysis showed that chlorophyll levels were 27% lower in t483 than in WT (Fig 2F). Consistent with the alteration in leaf color, the numbers of thylakoid lamellar and stacked grana in chloroplasts of adaxial mesophyll cells were lower in t483 than in WT, as determined using transmission electron microscopy (Fig 2G–2J). The chloroplast structure and thylakoid lamellar were, however, developed normally in abaxial mesophyll cells of the mutant (data not shown). In summary, the t483 mutant had morphological and growth defects that affected seed germination, plant height, tillering, panicle, leaf color, and leaf and root dimensions.

Bottom Line: RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type.Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type.These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483) exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus