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A New Large Hyainailourine from the Bartonian of Europe and Its Bearings on the Evolution and Ecology of Massive Hyaenodonts (Mammalia).

Solé F, Amson E, Borths M, Vidalenc D, Morlo M, Bastl K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: These migrants have no ecological equivalent in Europe during these intervals and likely did not conflict with the endemic hyaenodont proviverrines.Surprisingly, the late Miocene Hyainailouros shares a more recent common ancestor with small-bodied hyainailourines (below 15 kg).Finally, our study supports a close relationship between the Hyainailourinae and Apterodontinae and we propose the new clade: Hyainailouridae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: D. O. Earth and history of Life, Department of Paleontology, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium; Centre de Recherche sur la Paléobiodiversité et les Paléoenvironnements (CR2P: CNRS, MNHN, UPMC-Paris-06, Sorbonne Universités), Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, département Histoire de la Terre, 57 rue Cuvier, CP38, F-75005, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
We describe a new large-sized species of hypercarnivorous hyainailourine-Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov.-from the Bartonian (MP16) locality of Montespieu (Tarn, France). These specimens consist of a skull, two hemimandibles and several hind limb elements (fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsals, and phalanges). Size estimates suggest K. langebadreae may have weighed up to 140 kg, revealing this species as the largest carnivorous mammal in Europe at that time. Besides its very large size, K. langebadreae possesses an interesting combination of primitive and derived features. The distinctive skull morphology of K. langebadreae reflects a powerful bite force. The postcranial elements, which are rarely associated with hyainailourine specimens, indicate an animal capable of a plantigrade stance and adapted for terrestrial locomotion. We performed the first phylogenetic analysis of hyainailourines to determine the systematic position of K. langebadreae and to understand the evolution of the group that includes other massive carnivores. The analysis demonstrates that Hemipsalodon, a North American taxon, is a hyainailourine and is closely related to European Paroxyaena. Based on this analysis we hypothesize the biogeographic history of the Hyainailourinae. The group appeared in Africa with a first migration to Europe during the Bartonian that likely included the ancestors of Kerberos, Paroxyaena and Hemipsalodon, which further dispersed into North America at this time. We propose that the hyainailourines dispersed into Europe also during the Priabonian. These migrants have no ecological equivalent in Europe during these intervals and likely did not conflict with the endemic hyaenodont proviverrines. The discovery of K. langebadreae shows that large body size appears early in the evolution of hyainailourines. Surprisingly, the late Miocene Hyainailouros shares a more recent common ancestor with small-bodied hyainailourines (below 15 kg). Finally, our study supports a close relationship between the Hyainailourinae and Apterodontinae and we propose the new clade: Hyainailouridae.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of the hemimandibles in labial view of hyainailourines.Furodon crocheti (A, left inverted, HGL 50bis-56; HGL, Hammada Gour Lazib, Algeria, Université Montpellier 2, France), Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov. (B, holotype, left inverted, MNHN.F.EBA 518b) and “Pterodon” phiomensis (C, right, AMNH 13253; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA). Not to scale
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pone.0135698.g014: Comparison of the hemimandibles in labial view of hyainailourines.Furodon crocheti (A, left inverted, HGL 50bis-56; HGL, Hammada Gour Lazib, Algeria, Université Montpellier 2, France), Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov. (B, holotype, left inverted, MNHN.F.EBA 518b) and “Pterodon” phiomensis (C, right, AMNH 13253; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA). Not to scale

Mentions: Kerberos shares with Furodon (late Early or early Middle Eocene; Algeria), the oldest hyainailourine, the presence of a single-rooted P1; this tooth is larger than P1 in the younger Pterodon and Akhnatenavus. However, Kerberos differs from Parvavorodon and Furodon by the loss of the metaconid and a more reduced talonid on its lower molars and more connate paracone and metacone on its upper molars. These features are shared with the Late Eocene and Oligocene hyainailourines (e.g., Akhnatenavus Paroxyaena, Parapterodon, and Pterodon). Kerberos and Furodon share a similar mandibular morphology with the mandibular condyle located superior to the tooth row, a relatively superior placement of the angular process, and a steeply inclined ascending ramus and deepened fossa for the insertion of the temporal muscle on the anterior portion of coronoid crest (Fig 14).


A New Large Hyainailourine from the Bartonian of Europe and Its Bearings on the Evolution and Ecology of Massive Hyaenodonts (Mammalia).

Solé F, Amson E, Borths M, Vidalenc D, Morlo M, Bastl K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Comparison of the hemimandibles in labial view of hyainailourines.Furodon crocheti (A, left inverted, HGL 50bis-56; HGL, Hammada Gour Lazib, Algeria, Université Montpellier 2, France), Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov. (B, holotype, left inverted, MNHN.F.EBA 518b) and “Pterodon” phiomensis (C, right, AMNH 13253; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA). Not to scale
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4580617&req=5

pone.0135698.g014: Comparison of the hemimandibles in labial view of hyainailourines.Furodon crocheti (A, left inverted, HGL 50bis-56; HGL, Hammada Gour Lazib, Algeria, Université Montpellier 2, France), Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov. (B, holotype, left inverted, MNHN.F.EBA 518b) and “Pterodon” phiomensis (C, right, AMNH 13253; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA). Not to scale
Mentions: Kerberos shares with Furodon (late Early or early Middle Eocene; Algeria), the oldest hyainailourine, the presence of a single-rooted P1; this tooth is larger than P1 in the younger Pterodon and Akhnatenavus. However, Kerberos differs from Parvavorodon and Furodon by the loss of the metaconid and a more reduced talonid on its lower molars and more connate paracone and metacone on its upper molars. These features are shared with the Late Eocene and Oligocene hyainailourines (e.g., Akhnatenavus Paroxyaena, Parapterodon, and Pterodon). Kerberos and Furodon share a similar mandibular morphology with the mandibular condyle located superior to the tooth row, a relatively superior placement of the angular process, and a steeply inclined ascending ramus and deepened fossa for the insertion of the temporal muscle on the anterior portion of coronoid crest (Fig 14).

Bottom Line: These migrants have no ecological equivalent in Europe during these intervals and likely did not conflict with the endemic hyaenodont proviverrines.Surprisingly, the late Miocene Hyainailouros shares a more recent common ancestor with small-bodied hyainailourines (below 15 kg).Finally, our study supports a close relationship between the Hyainailourinae and Apterodontinae and we propose the new clade: Hyainailouridae.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: D. O. Earth and history of Life, Department of Paleontology, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium; Centre de Recherche sur la Paléobiodiversité et les Paléoenvironnements (CR2P: CNRS, MNHN, UPMC-Paris-06, Sorbonne Universités), Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, département Histoire de la Terre, 57 rue Cuvier, CP38, F-75005, Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
We describe a new large-sized species of hypercarnivorous hyainailourine-Kerberos langebadreae gen. & sp. nov.-from the Bartonian (MP16) locality of Montespieu (Tarn, France). These specimens consist of a skull, two hemimandibles and several hind limb elements (fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsals, and phalanges). Size estimates suggest K. langebadreae may have weighed up to 140 kg, revealing this species as the largest carnivorous mammal in Europe at that time. Besides its very large size, K. langebadreae possesses an interesting combination of primitive and derived features. The distinctive skull morphology of K. langebadreae reflects a powerful bite force. The postcranial elements, which are rarely associated with hyainailourine specimens, indicate an animal capable of a plantigrade stance and adapted for terrestrial locomotion. We performed the first phylogenetic analysis of hyainailourines to determine the systematic position of K. langebadreae and to understand the evolution of the group that includes other massive carnivores. The analysis demonstrates that Hemipsalodon, a North American taxon, is a hyainailourine and is closely related to European Paroxyaena. Based on this analysis we hypothesize the biogeographic history of the Hyainailourinae. The group appeared in Africa with a first migration to Europe during the Bartonian that likely included the ancestors of Kerberos, Paroxyaena and Hemipsalodon, which further dispersed into North America at this time. We propose that the hyainailourines dispersed into Europe also during the Priabonian. These migrants have no ecological equivalent in Europe during these intervals and likely did not conflict with the endemic hyaenodont proviverrines. The discovery of K. langebadreae shows that large body size appears early in the evolution of hyainailourines. Surprisingly, the late Miocene Hyainailouros shares a more recent common ancestor with small-bodied hyainailourines (below 15 kg). Finally, our study supports a close relationship between the Hyainailourinae and Apterodontinae and we propose the new clade: Hyainailouridae.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus