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The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm-Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients.

Halstead FD, Rauf M, Moiemen NS, Bamford A, Wearn CM, Fraise AP, Lund PA, Oppenheim BA, Webber MA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested.Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16-0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%).Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom; NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Localised infections, and burn wound sepsis are key concerns in the treatment of burns patients, and prevention of colonisation largely relies on biocides. Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against various planktonic organisms, however data is limited on efficacy, and few studies have been performed on biofilms.

Objectives: We sought to investigate the antibacterial activity of acetic acid against important burn wound colonising organisms growing planktonically and as biofilms.

Methods: Laboratory experiments were performed to test the ability of acetic acid to inhibit growth of pathogens, inhibit the formation of biofilms, and eradicate pre-formed biofilms.

Results: Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested. Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16-0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%). Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that acetic acid can inhibit growth of key burn wound pathogens when used at very dilute concentrations. Owing to current concerns of the reducing efficacy of systemic antibiotics, this novel biocide application offers great promise as a cheap and effective measure to treat infections in burns patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graph showing the mean average biomass of the biofilms produced by all isolates, as measured through the crystal violet assay.Optical density on the y axis refers to the average biofilm biomass (in the absence of AA) for all the isolates shown on the x axis. White (unshaded) bars represent isolates that were excluded from further testing owing to poor biofilming ability when compared to their other species counterparts. Red bars represent the isolates with unreliable biofilm production. Error bars represent the standard error for each average value and asterisks denote values statistically significantly different from the broth only control.
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pone.0136190.g001: Graph showing the mean average biomass of the biofilms produced by all isolates, as measured through the crystal violet assay.Optical density on the y axis refers to the average biofilm biomass (in the absence of AA) for all the isolates shown on the x axis. White (unshaded) bars represent isolates that were excluded from further testing owing to poor biofilming ability when compared to their other species counterparts. Red bars represent the isolates with unreliable biofilm production. Error bars represent the standard error for each average value and asterisks denote values statistically significantly different from the broth only control.

Mentions: The same 29 isolates were subjected to AA in the MBIC assay (Table 2). A spectrum of biofilm formation was seen, but four isolates (13.8%) (comprising A. baumannii (n = 1) and MRSA (n = 3)), were poor at producing biofilms (when compared to other isolates of the same species), and two isolates (6.9%) (comprising A. baumannii (n = 1) and MDR_E carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae (n = 1)) were deemed unreliable biofilm-producers. MDR_E was defined as being unreliable, since this isolate exhibited variable biofilm production and failed to produce a biofilm equivalent to the lowest amount produced by MSSA_10788on 25 of 44 tests. Isolates where the average biofilm formation (as measured by OD) after crystal violet staining was not significantly different (as measured by students ‘t’ test) to the broth only controls, were excluded from further analysis. This included the six isolates mentioned above (20.7%) which were not included in further analysis of anti-biofilm effects (nor tested in the MBEC model) (Fig 1).


The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm-Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients.

Halstead FD, Rauf M, Moiemen NS, Bamford A, Wearn CM, Fraise AP, Lund PA, Oppenheim BA, Webber MA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Graph showing the mean average biomass of the biofilms produced by all isolates, as measured through the crystal violet assay.Optical density on the y axis refers to the average biofilm biomass (in the absence of AA) for all the isolates shown on the x axis. White (unshaded) bars represent isolates that were excluded from further testing owing to poor biofilming ability when compared to their other species counterparts. Red bars represent the isolates with unreliable biofilm production. Error bars represent the standard error for each average value and asterisks denote values statistically significantly different from the broth only control.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4566994&req=5

pone.0136190.g001: Graph showing the mean average biomass of the biofilms produced by all isolates, as measured through the crystal violet assay.Optical density on the y axis refers to the average biofilm biomass (in the absence of AA) for all the isolates shown on the x axis. White (unshaded) bars represent isolates that were excluded from further testing owing to poor biofilming ability when compared to their other species counterparts. Red bars represent the isolates with unreliable biofilm production. Error bars represent the standard error for each average value and asterisks denote values statistically significantly different from the broth only control.
Mentions: The same 29 isolates were subjected to AA in the MBIC assay (Table 2). A spectrum of biofilm formation was seen, but four isolates (13.8%) (comprising A. baumannii (n = 1) and MRSA (n = 3)), were poor at producing biofilms (when compared to other isolates of the same species), and two isolates (6.9%) (comprising A. baumannii (n = 1) and MDR_E carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae (n = 1)) were deemed unreliable biofilm-producers. MDR_E was defined as being unreliable, since this isolate exhibited variable biofilm production and failed to produce a biofilm equivalent to the lowest amount produced by MSSA_10788on 25 of 44 tests. Isolates where the average biofilm formation (as measured by OD) after crystal violet staining was not significantly different (as measured by students ‘t’ test) to the broth only controls, were excluded from further analysis. This included the six isolates mentioned above (20.7%) which were not included in further analysis of anti-biofilm effects (nor tested in the MBEC model) (Fig 1).

Bottom Line: Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested.Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16-0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%).Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom; NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom; Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Localised infections, and burn wound sepsis are key concerns in the treatment of burns patients, and prevention of colonisation largely relies on biocides. Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against various planktonic organisms, however data is limited on efficacy, and few studies have been performed on biofilms.

Objectives: We sought to investigate the antibacterial activity of acetic acid against important burn wound colonising organisms growing planktonically and as biofilms.

Methods: Laboratory experiments were performed to test the ability of acetic acid to inhibit growth of pathogens, inhibit the formation of biofilms, and eradicate pre-formed biofilms.

Results: Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested. Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16-0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%). Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that acetic acid can inhibit growth of key burn wound pathogens when used at very dilute concentrations. Owing to current concerns of the reducing efficacy of systemic antibiotics, this novel biocide application offers great promise as a cheap and effective measure to treat infections in burns patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus