Limits...
The maize fused leaves1 (fdl1) gene controls organ separation in the embryo and seedling shoot and promotes coleoptile opening.

La Rocca N, Manzotti PS, Cavaiuolo M, Barbante A, Dalla Vecchia F, Gabotti D, Gendrot G, Horner DS, Krstajic J, Persico M, Rascio N, Rogowsky P, Scarafoni A, Consonni G - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: Fdl1 is involved in the regulation of cuticle deposition in young seedlings as well as in the establishment of a regular pattern of epicuticular wax deposition on the epidermis of young leaves.High expression was observed in the embryo, in the seedling coleoptile and in the first two leaves, whereas RNA level, as well as phenotypic defects, decreases at the third leaf stage.Interestingly several of the Arabidopsis MYB genes most closely related to ZmMYB94 are also involved in the activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis, suggesting deep conservation of regulatory processes related to cuticular wax deposition between monocots and dicots.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission electron microscope micrographs of epidermal cell walls of coleoptile and first two leaves from the fdl1-1 mutant seedlings. (A) The cell wall proper of coleoptile and first leaf cannot be distinguished in a fused zone. (B) Distinct cell walls are visible in the free area adjacent to the fused one. (C) The higher magnification reveals the absence of any cuticular materials between the fused cell walls of two leaf surfaces. (D) A cuticle layer can be seen on the cell walls of the small free zone. (E) An evident continuous cuticle covers the free surfaces of the epidermal cells, also bordering the point of fusion (arrow). (F) The cuticle overlays the surfaces of two unfused leaf epidermises. co, coleoptile; cu, cuticle; lf, leaf. Bars: 1 μm (A, B); 0.5 μm (C, F); 0.25 μm (D, E).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4566974&req=5

Figure 6: Transmission electron microscope micrographs of epidermal cell walls of coleoptile and first two leaves from the fdl1-1 mutant seedlings. (A) The cell wall proper of coleoptile and first leaf cannot be distinguished in a fused zone. (B) Distinct cell walls are visible in the free area adjacent to the fused one. (C) The higher magnification reveals the absence of any cuticular materials between the fused cell walls of two leaf surfaces. (D) A cuticle layer can be seen on the cell walls of the small free zone. (E) An evident continuous cuticle covers the free surfaces of the epidermal cells, also bordering the point of fusion (arrow). (F) The cuticle overlays the surfaces of two unfused leaf epidermises. co, coleoptile; cu, cuticle; lf, leaf. Bars: 1 μm (A, B); 0.5 μm (C, F); 0.25 μm (D, E).

Mentions: TEM analysis revealed that, within zones of fusion between two organs, mutant cells were joined by an apparent single cell wall (Fig. 6A), the cell wall proper of each of them being undistinguishable. While a thick, continuous cuticle layer could be seen on the cell walls of separated epidermises in adjacent zones (Fig. 6B, D, F) covering the free surfaces of the two organs even in the initial point of separation (Fig. 6D, E), cuticular material was not detectable between joined cell wall zones even at higher magnification (Fig. 6C). Moreover, the cuticle was always detectable along free epidermises (Fig. 6F) and fusion was never found between cutinized surfaces of leaves or other plant organs.


The maize fused leaves1 (fdl1) gene controls organ separation in the embryo and seedling shoot and promotes coleoptile opening.

La Rocca N, Manzotti PS, Cavaiuolo M, Barbante A, Dalla Vecchia F, Gabotti D, Gendrot G, Horner DS, Krstajic J, Persico M, Rascio N, Rogowsky P, Scarafoni A, Consonni G - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Transmission electron microscope micrographs of epidermal cell walls of coleoptile and first two leaves from the fdl1-1 mutant seedlings. (A) The cell wall proper of coleoptile and first leaf cannot be distinguished in a fused zone. (B) Distinct cell walls are visible in the free area adjacent to the fused one. (C) The higher magnification reveals the absence of any cuticular materials between the fused cell walls of two leaf surfaces. (D) A cuticle layer can be seen on the cell walls of the small free zone. (E) An evident continuous cuticle covers the free surfaces of the epidermal cells, also bordering the point of fusion (arrow). (F) The cuticle overlays the surfaces of two unfused leaf epidermises. co, coleoptile; cu, cuticle; lf, leaf. Bars: 1 μm (A, B); 0.5 μm (C, F); 0.25 μm (D, E).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4566974&req=5

Figure 6: Transmission electron microscope micrographs of epidermal cell walls of coleoptile and first two leaves from the fdl1-1 mutant seedlings. (A) The cell wall proper of coleoptile and first leaf cannot be distinguished in a fused zone. (B) Distinct cell walls are visible in the free area adjacent to the fused one. (C) The higher magnification reveals the absence of any cuticular materials between the fused cell walls of two leaf surfaces. (D) A cuticle layer can be seen on the cell walls of the small free zone. (E) An evident continuous cuticle covers the free surfaces of the epidermal cells, also bordering the point of fusion (arrow). (F) The cuticle overlays the surfaces of two unfused leaf epidermises. co, coleoptile; cu, cuticle; lf, leaf. Bars: 1 μm (A, B); 0.5 μm (C, F); 0.25 μm (D, E).
Mentions: TEM analysis revealed that, within zones of fusion between two organs, mutant cells were joined by an apparent single cell wall (Fig. 6A), the cell wall proper of each of them being undistinguishable. While a thick, continuous cuticle layer could be seen on the cell walls of separated epidermises in adjacent zones (Fig. 6B, D, F) covering the free surfaces of the two organs even in the initial point of separation (Fig. 6D, E), cuticular material was not detectable between joined cell wall zones even at higher magnification (Fig. 6C). Moreover, the cuticle was always detectable along free epidermises (Fig. 6F) and fusion was never found between cutinized surfaces of leaves or other plant organs.

Bottom Line: Fdl1 is involved in the regulation of cuticle deposition in young seedlings as well as in the establishment of a regular pattern of epicuticular wax deposition on the epidermis of young leaves.High expression was observed in the embryo, in the seedling coleoptile and in the first two leaves, whereas RNA level, as well as phenotypic defects, decreases at the third leaf stage.Interestingly several of the Arabidopsis MYB genes most closely related to ZmMYB94 are also involved in the activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis, suggesting deep conservation of regulatory processes related to cuticular wax deposition between monocots and dicots.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus