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Safe usage of cosmetics in Bangladesh: a quality perspective based on microbiological attributes.

Noor R, Zerin N, Das KK, Nitu LN - J Biol Res (Thessalon) (2015)

Bottom Line: The abundance of contaminating microorganisms has been quantitatively discussed and the possible health risk has been focused upon usage of these items.The prevalence of bacteria, fungi and the specific pathogenic microorganisms has been discussed based on research so far locally conducted on the finished items sold in markets, especially within the Dhaka metropolis.Conversely, the anti-bacterial activity was noticed in some of the products which might be in favor of the user safety.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51 Siddeswari Road, Dhaka, 1217 Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
The present review attempted to emphasize on the microbiological quality of the commonly used cosmetics item by the majority of the Bangladeshi community. The abundance of contaminating microorganisms has been quantitatively discussed and the possible health risk has been focused upon usage of these items. Only a very few research efforts have been conducted on the cosmetic items in Bangladesh so far. The microbiological contamination aspects have been portrayed in this review using the information collected from a substantial number of cosmetic items which were earlier subjected to extensive microbiological and biochemical analyses. The prevalence of bacteria, fungi and the specific pathogenic microorganisms has been discussed based on research so far locally conducted on the finished items sold in markets, especially within the Dhaka metropolis. The laboratory scale experiments revealed the presence of enormous number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi within the commonly used cosmetics. Conversely, the anti-bacterial activity was noticed in some of the products which might be in favor of the user safety. The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the cosmetic items certainly raises a substantial public health issue. The necessity of the routine microbiological testing of the commonly used cosmetic items as well as the legislative measures to mitigate the contamination problem is thus of great significance.

No MeSH data available.


Regulatory scheme for maintenance of the microbiological quality of cosmetic products. The figure illustrates the possible microbiological entry into the cosmetics products. The microbial load should be examined at every stage of manufacturing and packaging till the finished product formation, and should be intermittently checked during storage and distribution. The bio-burden is required to meet the specification criteria as recommended by the British Pharmacopeia (BP), European Pharmacopeia (EP) or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Market complaints need to be handled carefully to ensure the further product quality employing the good manufacturing practice (GMP) and total quality management (TQM). The critical points of microbial access into the products are required to be monitored by means of the “hazard analysis: critical control point” (HACCP) implementation [51]
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Fig1: Regulatory scheme for maintenance of the microbiological quality of cosmetic products. The figure illustrates the possible microbiological entry into the cosmetics products. The microbial load should be examined at every stage of manufacturing and packaging till the finished product formation, and should be intermittently checked during storage and distribution. The bio-burden is required to meet the specification criteria as recommended by the British Pharmacopeia (BP), European Pharmacopeia (EP) or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Market complaints need to be handled carefully to ensure the further product quality employing the good manufacturing practice (GMP) and total quality management (TQM). The critical points of microbial access into the products are required to be monitored by means of the “hazard analysis: critical control point” (HACCP) implementation [51]

Mentions: Like the pharmaceutical products, cosmetics are quite likely to consist of various substrates as the product ingredients which in turn may unfortunately further support the growth of a range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi [3, 9]. Therefore, these health care products need to be free from pathogens to reduce the possibility of the impairment of skin and mucous membranes [3, 17]. The incidence of skin diseases is likely to be frequent in the developing countries due to the unhygienic environment, dense population favoring contagious diseases, lack of awareness on cleanliness, improper sanitation practices, and finally the massive use of contaminated processing water [22–26]. Hence this is imperative that a proper maintenance of sound microbiological quality of the cosmetic products’ manufacturing starting from raw materials as well as the manufacturing waters according to the guidelines stated in the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is stringently required (Fig. 1) [27–31]. Indeed, the clear understanding the requirement of microbiological analyses of raw materials and final products of cosmetics for obtaining products with good microbiological quality in accordance to the microbial limit recommended in the British Pharmacopeia (BP), United States Pharmacopeia (USP) or the European Pharmacopeia (EP) and other regulatory bodies is thus essential, too [30–34]. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries in Bangladesh have been expanding for the last two decades with a great scope of maintenance of public health safety and the associated business as well [35]. Unlike the pharmaceutical medicaments, the foremost health concern relies on the lack of cosmetic testing aptitudes as well as the inadequate facilities in the poor settings, like in Bangladesh [2]. Since a large number of users are dependent on the various cosmetic items, it is of essence to visualize the extent of microbial contamination within these products as has been rationalized above. Along this line, the present review discusses the frequency and type of microbiological contamination of the commonly used cosmetic products in Bangladesh and focuses on the prevalence of health deteriorating pathogenic bacteria in terms of public health issues.Fig. 1


Safe usage of cosmetics in Bangladesh: a quality perspective based on microbiological attributes.

Noor R, Zerin N, Das KK, Nitu LN - J Biol Res (Thessalon) (2015)

Regulatory scheme for maintenance of the microbiological quality of cosmetic products. The figure illustrates the possible microbiological entry into the cosmetics products. The microbial load should be examined at every stage of manufacturing and packaging till the finished product formation, and should be intermittently checked during storage and distribution. The bio-burden is required to meet the specification criteria as recommended by the British Pharmacopeia (BP), European Pharmacopeia (EP) or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Market complaints need to be handled carefully to ensure the further product quality employing the good manufacturing practice (GMP) and total quality management (TQM). The critical points of microbial access into the products are required to be monitored by means of the “hazard analysis: critical control point” (HACCP) implementation [51]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4565015&req=5

Fig1: Regulatory scheme for maintenance of the microbiological quality of cosmetic products. The figure illustrates the possible microbiological entry into the cosmetics products. The microbial load should be examined at every stage of manufacturing and packaging till the finished product formation, and should be intermittently checked during storage and distribution. The bio-burden is required to meet the specification criteria as recommended by the British Pharmacopeia (BP), European Pharmacopeia (EP) or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Market complaints need to be handled carefully to ensure the further product quality employing the good manufacturing practice (GMP) and total quality management (TQM). The critical points of microbial access into the products are required to be monitored by means of the “hazard analysis: critical control point” (HACCP) implementation [51]
Mentions: Like the pharmaceutical products, cosmetics are quite likely to consist of various substrates as the product ingredients which in turn may unfortunately further support the growth of a range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi [3, 9]. Therefore, these health care products need to be free from pathogens to reduce the possibility of the impairment of skin and mucous membranes [3, 17]. The incidence of skin diseases is likely to be frequent in the developing countries due to the unhygienic environment, dense population favoring contagious diseases, lack of awareness on cleanliness, improper sanitation practices, and finally the massive use of contaminated processing water [22–26]. Hence this is imperative that a proper maintenance of sound microbiological quality of the cosmetic products’ manufacturing starting from raw materials as well as the manufacturing waters according to the guidelines stated in the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is stringently required (Fig. 1) [27–31]. Indeed, the clear understanding the requirement of microbiological analyses of raw materials and final products of cosmetics for obtaining products with good microbiological quality in accordance to the microbial limit recommended in the British Pharmacopeia (BP), United States Pharmacopeia (USP) or the European Pharmacopeia (EP) and other regulatory bodies is thus essential, too [30–34]. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries in Bangladesh have been expanding for the last two decades with a great scope of maintenance of public health safety and the associated business as well [35]. Unlike the pharmaceutical medicaments, the foremost health concern relies on the lack of cosmetic testing aptitudes as well as the inadequate facilities in the poor settings, like in Bangladesh [2]. Since a large number of users are dependent on the various cosmetic items, it is of essence to visualize the extent of microbial contamination within these products as has been rationalized above. Along this line, the present review discusses the frequency and type of microbiological contamination of the commonly used cosmetic products in Bangladesh and focuses on the prevalence of health deteriorating pathogenic bacteria in terms of public health issues.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The abundance of contaminating microorganisms has been quantitatively discussed and the possible health risk has been focused upon usage of these items.The prevalence of bacteria, fungi and the specific pathogenic microorganisms has been discussed based on research so far locally conducted on the finished items sold in markets, especially within the Dhaka metropolis.Conversely, the anti-bacterial activity was noticed in some of the products which might be in favor of the user safety.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51 Siddeswari Road, Dhaka, 1217 Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT
The present review attempted to emphasize on the microbiological quality of the commonly used cosmetics item by the majority of the Bangladeshi community. The abundance of contaminating microorganisms has been quantitatively discussed and the possible health risk has been focused upon usage of these items. Only a very few research efforts have been conducted on the cosmetic items in Bangladesh so far. The microbiological contamination aspects have been portrayed in this review using the information collected from a substantial number of cosmetic items which were earlier subjected to extensive microbiological and biochemical analyses. The prevalence of bacteria, fungi and the specific pathogenic microorganisms has been discussed based on research so far locally conducted on the finished items sold in markets, especially within the Dhaka metropolis. The laboratory scale experiments revealed the presence of enormous number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi within the commonly used cosmetics. Conversely, the anti-bacterial activity was noticed in some of the products which might be in favor of the user safety. The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the cosmetic items certainly raises a substantial public health issue. The necessity of the routine microbiological testing of the commonly used cosmetic items as well as the legislative measures to mitigate the contamination problem is thus of great significance.

No MeSH data available.