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The influence of snoring, mouth breathing and apnoea on facial morphology in late childhood: a three-dimensional study.

Al Ali A, Richmond S, Popat H, Playle R, Pickles T, Zhurov AI, Marshall D, Rosin PL, Henderson J, Bonuck K - BMJ Open (2015)

Bottom Line: We excluded from the original cohort all children identified as having congenital abnormalities, diagnoses associated with poor growth and children with adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy.Differences in facial measurements were found between the children with and without SDB throughout early childhood.The odds of children exhibiting symptoms of SDB increased significantly with respect to increased face height and mandible angle, but reduced with increased nose width and prominence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied Clinical Research & Public Health, Dental School, Wales, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Facial soft tissue landmarks.
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BMJOPEN2015009027F1: Facial soft tissue landmarks.

Mentions: The laser scanning system consisted of two high-resolution cameras (Minolta VIVID 900 Optical Digitizers) operating as a stereopair. The system can acquire 307 200 (640×480) data points as the x-coordinates, y-coordinates and z-coordinates of the surface scanned, with an average reported manufacturing accuracy of 0.1 mm (±0.2 mm).37 A strict protocol for capturing facial soft tissue morphology was applied in this study. Children sat on an adjustable stool and were asked to look at a Bristol red glass heart hung from the ceiling to simulate natural head posture (NHP). NHP was adopted because it has been shown to be clinically reproducible.38–40 Children were also instructed to swallow hard and to keep their jaws relaxed just before the scans were taken. If a patient moved between scans, the procedure was repeated. The scanning took approximately 8 s per child. A locally developed algorithm implemented as a macro in Rapidform software (INUS Technology Inc, Seoul, South Korea) was used to process, register and merge the left and right facial scans of each individual.41 Prior to merging, the scanning accuracy was checked. At least 90% matching of the overlap area of facial halves, with an error ≤0.75 mm, was deemed to be clinically acceptable. Facial images were normalised to natural head posture with the origin set at mid-endocanthion point, because this is the most stable point with respect to the growth of the face.42 The 21 soft tissue landmarks shown in figure 1 were manually identified on each facial shell using the Rapidform software.43 The precision of measuring the landmarks was <1.0 mm for both intraexaminer and interexaminer assessments. The 17 face shape variables calculated from the landmarks are listed in table 1.


The influence of snoring, mouth breathing and apnoea on facial morphology in late childhood: a three-dimensional study.

Al Ali A, Richmond S, Popat H, Playle R, Pickles T, Zhurov AI, Marshall D, Rosin PL, Henderson J, Bonuck K - BMJ Open (2015)

Facial soft tissue landmarks.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563226&req=5

BMJOPEN2015009027F1: Facial soft tissue landmarks.
Mentions: The laser scanning system consisted of two high-resolution cameras (Minolta VIVID 900 Optical Digitizers) operating as a stereopair. The system can acquire 307 200 (640×480) data points as the x-coordinates, y-coordinates and z-coordinates of the surface scanned, with an average reported manufacturing accuracy of 0.1 mm (±0.2 mm).37 A strict protocol for capturing facial soft tissue morphology was applied in this study. Children sat on an adjustable stool and were asked to look at a Bristol red glass heart hung from the ceiling to simulate natural head posture (NHP). NHP was adopted because it has been shown to be clinically reproducible.38–40 Children were also instructed to swallow hard and to keep their jaws relaxed just before the scans were taken. If a patient moved between scans, the procedure was repeated. The scanning took approximately 8 s per child. A locally developed algorithm implemented as a macro in Rapidform software (INUS Technology Inc, Seoul, South Korea) was used to process, register and merge the left and right facial scans of each individual.41 Prior to merging, the scanning accuracy was checked. At least 90% matching of the overlap area of facial halves, with an error ≤0.75 mm, was deemed to be clinically acceptable. Facial images were normalised to natural head posture with the origin set at mid-endocanthion point, because this is the most stable point with respect to the growth of the face.42 The 21 soft tissue landmarks shown in figure 1 were manually identified on each facial shell using the Rapidform software.43 The precision of measuring the landmarks was <1.0 mm for both intraexaminer and interexaminer assessments. The 17 face shape variables calculated from the landmarks are listed in table 1.

Bottom Line: We excluded from the original cohort all children identified as having congenital abnormalities, diagnoses associated with poor growth and children with adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy.Differences in facial measurements were found between the children with and without SDB throughout early childhood.The odds of children exhibiting symptoms of SDB increased significantly with respect to increased face height and mandible angle, but reduced with increased nose width and prominence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Applied Clinical Research & Public Health, Dental School, Wales, UK.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus