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Understanding salinity responses and adopting 'omics-based' approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice.

Das P, Nutan KK, Singla-Pareek SL, Pareek A - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant.Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management.In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various 'omics' approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using 'omics-based' tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary 'omics-based' approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various 'omics' approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of Na+ influx in roots, its sequestration pathways and primary protective mechanisms as mediated by the transporters present on plasma membrane and tonoplast of the cell. (A) Influx of Na+ through plant root. Red arrows represent probable Na+ entry sites for the apoplastic bypass flow and blue arrow represents the path for symplastic movement. (B) Various transporters (NHX, HKT, SOS1) responsible for ion movement localized on the biological membranes have been shown for an individual cell of the plant. The energy providing (vacuolar H+-ATPase or V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase or V-PPase) and activating molecules (SOS3, SOS2) are also shown.
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Figure 2: Schematic representation of Na+ influx in roots, its sequestration pathways and primary protective mechanisms as mediated by the transporters present on plasma membrane and tonoplast of the cell. (A) Influx of Na+ through plant root. Red arrows represent probable Na+ entry sites for the apoplastic bypass flow and blue arrow represents the path for symplastic movement. (B) Various transporters (NHX, HKT, SOS1) responsible for ion movement localized on the biological membranes have been shown for an individual cell of the plant. The energy providing (vacuolar H+-ATPase or V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase or V-PPase) and activating molecules (SOS3, SOS2) are also shown.

Mentions: Symplastic movement of ions in root involves various ion selective channels/transporters present on the plasma membrane of the root cell which selectively allow the movement of ions inside the cell and maintain ionic balances under salinity. Plants have different defense machinery at the boundary of cell-xylem apoplast. A report has shown that Na+ re-intake takes place from the xylem flow by adjacent tissues, and as a consequence, decreases flow of Na+ into the shoot parts (Lacan and Durand, 1996). HKT is a Na+/K+ symporter found in the plant cell membrane which regulates transportation of Na+ and K+. Class 1 HKT transporter in rice removes excess Na+ from xylem, thus protecting the photosynthetic leaf tissues from the toxic effect of Na+ (Schroeder et al., 2013). This mechanism of salt tolerance has been depicted in Figure 2A.


Understanding salinity responses and adopting 'omics-based' approaches to generate salinity tolerant cultivars of rice.

Das P, Nutan KK, Singla-Pareek SL, Pareek A - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Schematic representation of Na+ influx in roots, its sequestration pathways and primary protective mechanisms as mediated by the transporters present on plasma membrane and tonoplast of the cell. (A) Influx of Na+ through plant root. Red arrows represent probable Na+ entry sites for the apoplastic bypass flow and blue arrow represents the path for symplastic movement. (B) Various transporters (NHX, HKT, SOS1) responsible for ion movement localized on the biological membranes have been shown for an individual cell of the plant. The energy providing (vacuolar H+-ATPase or V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase or V-PPase) and activating molecules (SOS3, SOS2) are also shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563168&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic representation of Na+ influx in roots, its sequestration pathways and primary protective mechanisms as mediated by the transporters present on plasma membrane and tonoplast of the cell. (A) Influx of Na+ through plant root. Red arrows represent probable Na+ entry sites for the apoplastic bypass flow and blue arrow represents the path for symplastic movement. (B) Various transporters (NHX, HKT, SOS1) responsible for ion movement localized on the biological membranes have been shown for an individual cell of the plant. The energy providing (vacuolar H+-ATPase or V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase or V-PPase) and activating molecules (SOS3, SOS2) are also shown.
Mentions: Symplastic movement of ions in root involves various ion selective channels/transporters present on the plasma membrane of the root cell which selectively allow the movement of ions inside the cell and maintain ionic balances under salinity. Plants have different defense machinery at the boundary of cell-xylem apoplast. A report has shown that Na+ re-intake takes place from the xylem flow by adjacent tissues, and as a consequence, decreases flow of Na+ into the shoot parts (Lacan and Durand, 1996). HKT is a Na+/K+ symporter found in the plant cell membrane which regulates transportation of Na+ and K+. Class 1 HKT transporter in rice removes excess Na+ from xylem, thus protecting the photosynthetic leaf tissues from the toxic effect of Na+ (Schroeder et al., 2013). This mechanism of salt tolerance has been depicted in Figure 2A.

Bottom Line: Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant.Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management.In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various 'omics' approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Soil salinity is one of the main constraints affecting production of rice worldwide, by reducing growth, pollen viability as well as yield of the plant. Therefore, detailed understanding of the response of rice towards soil salinity at the physiological and molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. Various approaches have been adopted by molecular biologists or breeders to understand the mechanism for salinity tolerance in plants and to develop salt tolerant rice cultivars. Genome wide analysis using 'omics-based' tools followed by identification and functional validation of individual genes is becoming one of the popular approaches to tackle this task. On the other hand, mutation breeding and insertional mutagenesis has also been exploited to obtain salinity tolerant crop plants. This review looks into various responses at cellular and whole plant level generated in rice plants toward salinity stress thus, evaluating the suitability of intervention of functional genomics to raise stress tolerant plants. We have tried to highlight the usefulness of the contemporary 'omics-based' approaches such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and phenomics towards dissecting out the salinity tolerance trait in rice. In addition, we have highlighted the importance of integration of various 'omics' approaches to develop an understanding of the machinery involved in salinity response in rice and to move forward to develop salt tolerant cultivars of rice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus