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A general methodology for collecting and preserving xystodesmid and other large millipedes for biodiversity research.

Means JC, Francis EA, Lane AA, Marek PE - Biodivers Data J (2015)

Bottom Line: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity.The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies.The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity. The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies. The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

New information: Here we summarize a methodology for large-bodied millipede collection, curation, and preservation for genetic analyses with the hope that sharing these techniques will stimulate interest in these charismatic detritivores.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An example of a xystodesmid millipede, Apheloriavirginiensiscorrugata (Wood 1864) in a 20 mL collection vial with moist moss and detritus. (Also see Mov. 3.)
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Figure 1645584: An example of a xystodesmid millipede, Apheloriavirginiensiscorrugata (Wood 1864) in a 20 mL collection vial with moist moss and detritus. (Also see Mov. 3.)

Mentions: Once collected, xystodesmids should be stored in 20 mL plastic cell-counter vials with a piece of moistened moss to reduce desiccation (Fig. 6, Fig. 7). For international shipping, a dampened Kimwipe (Kimberly-Clark, Roswell, GA) should replace moss or soil to comply with agricultural shipping regulations. Moisture level should be high enough that condensation is visible on the sides of the container, but not so much that water pools at the bottom of the vessel. Vials are 55 mm in height and 32 mm in diameter with a square base that is tapered. These vials are appropriate for many types of millipedes, though some genera such as Narceus and Cleptoria may require larger containers. A 400 mL jar (about the size used for peanut butter) is useful for these large-bodied specimens. When collecting, lids should be punctured with small holes to provide oxygen to the animals; however, holes should be punched prior to enclosing the millipede. Minuscule specimens (< 3 mm wide) may escape through these air holes, and therefore should be kept in airtight containers for transport back to the lab. Special care should be taken with airtight containers and the specimens should be aerated at least 2 – 3 times per day by opening the vial. When collecting in drier regions, for example the lowlands of California, fewer or no holes should be made in the lid to prevent desiccation. All vials from a single location should be kept in a single resealable bag, labeled with a collection code (e.g., HERP-002-2004) and opened slightly at the top for gas transfer (Fig. 3, Fig. 8). Bags containing samples should be stored in a cooler with an ice pack, and kept separate from direct contact with the ice (e.g., with a piece of cardboard or plastic, Fig. 3). This provides the millipedes with a cool, dark environment and reduces stress during transport. Xystodesmids on average will survive in a vial with moist moss for about a week, though processing (see below) should take place as soon as possible to avoid premature death and putrefaction. When processing does not take place immediately, the moisture level of the container, as well as the millipede’s condition, must be monitored daily. If a millipede is mortally injured in the field, and is unlikely to survive the trip back to the lab, then it should be placed in a vial containing 100% ethanol for DNA preservation. Otherwise, putrefaction nearly always causes complete loss of DNA.


A general methodology for collecting and preserving xystodesmid and other large millipedes for biodiversity research.

Means JC, Francis EA, Lane AA, Marek PE - Biodivers Data J (2015)

An example of a xystodesmid millipede, Apheloriavirginiensiscorrugata (Wood 1864) in a 20 mL collection vial with moist moss and detritus. (Also see Mov. 3.)
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563156&req=5

Figure 1645584: An example of a xystodesmid millipede, Apheloriavirginiensiscorrugata (Wood 1864) in a 20 mL collection vial with moist moss and detritus. (Also see Mov. 3.)
Mentions: Once collected, xystodesmids should be stored in 20 mL plastic cell-counter vials with a piece of moistened moss to reduce desiccation (Fig. 6, Fig. 7). For international shipping, a dampened Kimwipe (Kimberly-Clark, Roswell, GA) should replace moss or soil to comply with agricultural shipping regulations. Moisture level should be high enough that condensation is visible on the sides of the container, but not so much that water pools at the bottom of the vessel. Vials are 55 mm in height and 32 mm in diameter with a square base that is tapered. These vials are appropriate for many types of millipedes, though some genera such as Narceus and Cleptoria may require larger containers. A 400 mL jar (about the size used for peanut butter) is useful for these large-bodied specimens. When collecting, lids should be punctured with small holes to provide oxygen to the animals; however, holes should be punched prior to enclosing the millipede. Minuscule specimens (< 3 mm wide) may escape through these air holes, and therefore should be kept in airtight containers for transport back to the lab. Special care should be taken with airtight containers and the specimens should be aerated at least 2 – 3 times per day by opening the vial. When collecting in drier regions, for example the lowlands of California, fewer or no holes should be made in the lid to prevent desiccation. All vials from a single location should be kept in a single resealable bag, labeled with a collection code (e.g., HERP-002-2004) and opened slightly at the top for gas transfer (Fig. 3, Fig. 8). Bags containing samples should be stored in a cooler with an ice pack, and kept separate from direct contact with the ice (e.g., with a piece of cardboard or plastic, Fig. 3). This provides the millipedes with a cool, dark environment and reduces stress during transport. Xystodesmids on average will survive in a vial with moist moss for about a week, though processing (see below) should take place as soon as possible to avoid premature death and putrefaction. When processing does not take place immediately, the moisture level of the container, as well as the millipede’s condition, must be monitored daily. If a millipede is mortally injured in the field, and is unlikely to survive the trip back to the lab, then it should be placed in a vial containing 100% ethanol for DNA preservation. Otherwise, putrefaction nearly always causes complete loss of DNA.

Bottom Line: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity.The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies.The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity. The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies. The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

New information: Here we summarize a methodology for large-bodied millipede collection, curation, and preservation for genetic analyses with the hope that sharing these techniques will stimulate interest in these charismatic detritivores.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus