Limits...
A general methodology for collecting and preserving xystodesmid and other large millipedes for biodiversity research.

Means JC, Francis EA, Lane AA, Marek PE - Biodivers Data J (2015)

Bottom Line: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity.The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies.The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity. The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies. The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

New information: Here we summarize a methodology for large-bodied millipede collection, curation, and preservation for genetic analyses with the hope that sharing these techniques will stimulate interest in these charismatic detritivores.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Field collection kit, including a (A) Mountainsmith lumbar pack (8 L volume); (B) UV flashlight; (C) GPS unit; (D) breaker bar; (E) 20 mL collection vials (cell counter type); (F) 100% alcohol-filled vials for millipedes that prematurely die (Sarstedt 8 mL plastic screw-top vials); (G) 10X and 20X Coddington loupes; (H) 100 mL collection vials (large pharmacy pill vial type); (I) 50 mL Falcon tube; (J) Field notebook; (K) Apple iPhone with internal GPS and Gaia GPS app with predownloaded USGS topo quads; (L) pencil, fine and extra fine point permanent Sharpie markers; (M) narrow and wide tip featherweight forceps from Bioquip; (N) headlamp from Black Diamond (Ion model).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563156&req=5

Figure 1645580: Field collection kit, including a (A) Mountainsmith lumbar pack (8 L volume); (B) UV flashlight; (C) GPS unit; (D) breaker bar; (E) 20 mL collection vials (cell counter type); (F) 100% alcohol-filled vials for millipedes that prematurely die (Sarstedt 8 mL plastic screw-top vials); (G) 10X and 20X Coddington loupes; (H) 100 mL collection vials (large pharmacy pill vial type); (I) 50 mL Falcon tube; (J) Field notebook; (K) Apple iPhone with internal GPS and Gaia GPS app with predownloaded USGS topo quads; (L) pencil, fine and extra fine point permanent Sharpie markers; (M) narrow and wide tip featherweight forceps from Bioquip; (N) headlamp from Black Diamond (Ion model).

Mentions: Our standard field collecting kit (Fig. 2), which can be packed in an Mountainsmith lumbar pack (Fig. 2A), includes a UV blacklight for nighttime collecting (Fig. 2B); a GPS unit with GLONASS to record latitude, longitude, and GPS elevation of specimen localities (Fig. 2C); a breaker bar for dismantling decaying logs (Fig. 2D); 20 mL collection vials (Fig. 2E); 100% ethanol for emergency preservation of millipedes that prematurely die (Fig. 2F); collection cards printed on archival paper to record locality details; 10X and 20X Coddington loupes (Fig. 2G); 100 mL collection vials (Fig. 2H); 50 mL Falcon tubes (Fig. 2I); Rite in the Rain field notebook (Fig. 2J); iPhone with internal GPS (or with external Bad Elf GPS plug-in), camera, and Gaia GPS app for navigation (Fig. 2K); Sharpie fine point and extra fine point permanent markers and a pencil (Fig. 2L); narrow and wide tip featherweight forceps from Bioquip (Fig. 2M); and a head lamp (Fig. 2N). A millipede rake is also included as part of the kit, and other items that are used once the collector starts field-processing material (typically at the car or campsite). These items include 1 L resealable bags to separate samples from different sites, water for keeping millipedes moist, and a cooler for millipede transport (Fig. 3). At all times, investigators are required to carry a collections permit, especially if collecting is to take place on national park land or other federally, state, or privately-owned property. In some cases, an additional permit is required to export specimens between countries or districts within the country.


A general methodology for collecting and preserving xystodesmid and other large millipedes for biodiversity research.

Means JC, Francis EA, Lane AA, Marek PE - Biodivers Data J (2015)

Field collection kit, including a (A) Mountainsmith lumbar pack (8 L volume); (B) UV flashlight; (C) GPS unit; (D) breaker bar; (E) 20 mL collection vials (cell counter type); (F) 100% alcohol-filled vials for millipedes that prematurely die (Sarstedt 8 mL plastic screw-top vials); (G) 10X and 20X Coddington loupes; (H) 100 mL collection vials (large pharmacy pill vial type); (I) 50 mL Falcon tube; (J) Field notebook; (K) Apple iPhone with internal GPS and Gaia GPS app with predownloaded USGS topo quads; (L) pencil, fine and extra fine point permanent Sharpie markers; (M) narrow and wide tip featherweight forceps from Bioquip; (N) headlamp from Black Diamond (Ion model).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563156&req=5

Figure 1645580: Field collection kit, including a (A) Mountainsmith lumbar pack (8 L volume); (B) UV flashlight; (C) GPS unit; (D) breaker bar; (E) 20 mL collection vials (cell counter type); (F) 100% alcohol-filled vials for millipedes that prematurely die (Sarstedt 8 mL plastic screw-top vials); (G) 10X and 20X Coddington loupes; (H) 100 mL collection vials (large pharmacy pill vial type); (I) 50 mL Falcon tube; (J) Field notebook; (K) Apple iPhone with internal GPS and Gaia GPS app with predownloaded USGS topo quads; (L) pencil, fine and extra fine point permanent Sharpie markers; (M) narrow and wide tip featherweight forceps from Bioquip; (N) headlamp from Black Diamond (Ion model).
Mentions: Our standard field collecting kit (Fig. 2), which can be packed in an Mountainsmith lumbar pack (Fig. 2A), includes a UV blacklight for nighttime collecting (Fig. 2B); a GPS unit with GLONASS to record latitude, longitude, and GPS elevation of specimen localities (Fig. 2C); a breaker bar for dismantling decaying logs (Fig. 2D); 20 mL collection vials (Fig. 2E); 100% ethanol for emergency preservation of millipedes that prematurely die (Fig. 2F); collection cards printed on archival paper to record locality details; 10X and 20X Coddington loupes (Fig. 2G); 100 mL collection vials (Fig. 2H); 50 mL Falcon tubes (Fig. 2I); Rite in the Rain field notebook (Fig. 2J); iPhone with internal GPS (or with external Bad Elf GPS plug-in), camera, and Gaia GPS app for navigation (Fig. 2K); Sharpie fine point and extra fine point permanent markers and a pencil (Fig. 2L); narrow and wide tip featherweight forceps from Bioquip (Fig. 2M); and a head lamp (Fig. 2N). A millipede rake is also included as part of the kit, and other items that are used once the collector starts field-processing material (typically at the car or campsite). These items include 1 L resealable bags to separate samples from different sites, water for keeping millipedes moist, and a cooler for millipede transport (Fig. 3). At all times, investigators are required to carry a collections permit, especially if collecting is to take place on national park land or other federally, state, or privately-owned property. In some cases, an additional permit is required to export specimens between countries or districts within the country.

Bottom Line: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity.The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies.The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: With an estimated 80% of species remaining undescribed (but see Brewer et al. 2012), millipede taxonomy offers the opportunity to discover new species and explore biodiversity. The lack of basic alpha taxonomic information regarding millipedes belies their significant ecological role and potential as premier models in ecological and evolutionary studies. The group possesses many fascinating biological properties (e.g., bioluminescence, mimicry, and complex chemical secretions) that have been the focus of several recent studies and are emerging avenues of future investigation.

New information: Here we summarize a methodology for large-bodied millipede collection, curation, and preservation for genetic analyses with the hope that sharing these techniques will stimulate interest in these charismatic detritivores.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus