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Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency.

Zhou X, Wei W, Zhang Y, Cui J, Chen C - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test.Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time).In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Siegler Center for Innovative Learning, Beijing Normal University Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0-11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Examples of stimuli for all cognitive tests. Note: For the task forward verbal working memory, the Chinese words mean “After inputting answer, press key Enter.”
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Figure 1: Examples of stimuli for all cognitive tests. Note: For the task forward verbal working memory, the Chinese words mean “After inputting answer, press key Enter.”

Mentions: Two sets of dots were presented simultaneously on the screen, and participants were asked to judge which dot array contained more dots while ignoring the sizes of individual dots (see Figure 1). Participants pressed “Q” if they thought the array on the left contained more dots and “P” if they thought the array on the right contained more dots. The number of dots in each set varied from 5 to 32. The current investigation focused on the approximate number sense in numerosity processing, i.e., estimating the number of items (Feigenson et al., 2004). Therefore, we excluded the dot arrays within subitizing range (1–4 dots), which did not rely on estimation.


Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency.

Zhou X, Wei W, Zhang Y, Cui J, Chen C - Front Psychol (2015)

Examples of stimuli for all cognitive tests. Note: For the task forward verbal working memory, the Chinese words mean “After inputting answer, press key Enter.”
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563146&req=5

Figure 1: Examples of stimuli for all cognitive tests. Note: For the task forward verbal working memory, the Chinese words mean “After inputting answer, press key Enter.”
Mentions: Two sets of dots were presented simultaneously on the screen, and participants were asked to judge which dot array contained more dots while ignoring the sizes of individual dots (see Figure 1). Participants pressed “Q” if they thought the array on the left contained more dots and “P” if they thought the array on the right contained more dots. The number of dots in each set varied from 5 to 32. The current investigation focused on the approximate number sense in numerosity processing, i.e., estimating the number of items (Feigenson et al., 2004). Therefore, we excluded the dot arrays within subitizing range (1–4 dots), which did not rely on estimation.

Bottom Line: All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test.Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time).In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Siegler Center for Innovative Learning, Beijing Normal University Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0-11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus