Limits...
Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

Rattazzi L, Cariboni A, Poojara R, Shoenfeld Y, D'Acquisto F - Front Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium.Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage.Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Impaired tissue structure of the olfactory system of adult RAG-1−∕− mice. (A,B) Brains from male postnatal age (P) 21 RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were photographed side-by-side to demonstrate no differences in the size and gross morphology of the brain and of the olfactory bulbs (OB). (C,D) Coronal sections of the olfactory bulb from the same mice immunostained with an anti-OMP antibody showed a reduced OMP signal in the mutant mice compared to controls. DAPI was used to stain the nuclei. The funny arrow (E″) highlights the disorganized structure of the glomerulus in the mutant OB. (D,F) are higher magnification of the areas pointed by the arrows in (C″,E″). Pictures are representative of n = 3 mice of each genotypes. Scale bars: 1 mm (A,B); 100 μm (C,E).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563081&req=5

Figure 4: Impaired tissue structure of the olfactory system of adult RAG-1−∕− mice. (A,B) Brains from male postnatal age (P) 21 RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were photographed side-by-side to demonstrate no differences in the size and gross morphology of the brain and of the olfactory bulbs (OB). (C,D) Coronal sections of the olfactory bulb from the same mice immunostained with an anti-OMP antibody showed a reduced OMP signal in the mutant mice compared to controls. DAPI was used to stain the nuclei. The funny arrow (E″) highlights the disorganized structure of the glomerulus in the mutant OB. (D,F) are higher magnification of the areas pointed by the arrows in (C″,E″). Pictures are representative of n = 3 mice of each genotypes. Scale bars: 1 mm (A,B); 100 μm (C,E).

Mentions: Morphological analysis of the olfactory bulb of fully developed (7 week-old) RAG-1−∕− adult mice did not present any differences in size compared to control age-matched wild-type (Figures 4A,B, respectively). However, immunofluorescene staining of the olfactory bulb for OMP showed disorganized glomeruli (which are the initial sites for synaptic processing of odor information coming from the nose, Zou et al., 2009; Sakano, 2010) (Figures 4C,E) as well reduced expression of this marker (Figures 4D,F). Quantitative analysis of OMP staining over different sections confirmed these results and showed a significant (p < 0.01; n = 3) reduction of about 50% of the pixel intensity in RAG-1−∕− mice (15.9 ± 1.7 mean pixel intensity/area) compared to wild-type control (28.8 ± 2.3 mean pixel intensity/area). No differences were observed in the size of each glomerulus, expressed as mean of the area (wild type: 0.0224 ± 0.0017 vs. RAG-1−∕− 0.0255 ± 0.0022, p = 0.72; Area expressed as square mm).


Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

Rattazzi L, Cariboni A, Poojara R, Shoenfeld Y, D'Acquisto F - Front Neurosci (2015)

Impaired tissue structure of the olfactory system of adult RAG-1−∕− mice. (A,B) Brains from male postnatal age (P) 21 RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were photographed side-by-side to demonstrate no differences in the size and gross morphology of the brain and of the olfactory bulbs (OB). (C,D) Coronal sections of the olfactory bulb from the same mice immunostained with an anti-OMP antibody showed a reduced OMP signal in the mutant mice compared to controls. DAPI was used to stain the nuclei. The funny arrow (E″) highlights the disorganized structure of the glomerulus in the mutant OB. (D,F) are higher magnification of the areas pointed by the arrows in (C″,E″). Pictures are representative of n = 3 mice of each genotypes. Scale bars: 1 mm (A,B); 100 μm (C,E).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563081&req=5

Figure 4: Impaired tissue structure of the olfactory system of adult RAG-1−∕− mice. (A,B) Brains from male postnatal age (P) 21 RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were photographed side-by-side to demonstrate no differences in the size and gross morphology of the brain and of the olfactory bulbs (OB). (C,D) Coronal sections of the olfactory bulb from the same mice immunostained with an anti-OMP antibody showed a reduced OMP signal in the mutant mice compared to controls. DAPI was used to stain the nuclei. The funny arrow (E″) highlights the disorganized structure of the glomerulus in the mutant OB. (D,F) are higher magnification of the areas pointed by the arrows in (C″,E″). Pictures are representative of n = 3 mice of each genotypes. Scale bars: 1 mm (A,B); 100 μm (C,E).
Mentions: Morphological analysis of the olfactory bulb of fully developed (7 week-old) RAG-1−∕− adult mice did not present any differences in size compared to control age-matched wild-type (Figures 4A,B, respectively). However, immunofluorescene staining of the olfactory bulb for OMP showed disorganized glomeruli (which are the initial sites for synaptic processing of odor information coming from the nose, Zou et al., 2009; Sakano, 2010) (Figures 4C,E) as well reduced expression of this marker (Figures 4D,F). Quantitative analysis of OMP staining over different sections confirmed these results and showed a significant (p < 0.01; n = 3) reduction of about 50% of the pixel intensity in RAG-1−∕− mice (15.9 ± 1.7 mean pixel intensity/area) compared to wild-type control (28.8 ± 2.3 mean pixel intensity/area). No differences were observed in the size of each glomerulus, expressed as mean of the area (wild type: 0.0224 ± 0.0017 vs. RAG-1−∕− 0.0255 ± 0.0022, p = 0.72; Area expressed as square mm).

Bottom Line: Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium.Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage.Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus