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Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

Rattazzi L, Cariboni A, Poojara R, Shoenfeld Y, D'Acquisto F - Front Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium.Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage.Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

RAG-1−∕− mice show an impaired sense of smell. Adult 7 week-old RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were tested with the buried cookie test (top panels) or the habituation/dishabituation test (bottom panels) as described in Materials and methods. The bar graph in (A) represents the time expressed in seconds required to find the buried cookie. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 4 experiments with similar results. ***p < 0.005 vs. C57BL/6 control mice. The graph in (B) shows the time expressed in seconds spent sniffing the stimuli (water, almond, banana, and social odor). The numbers on the x-axes (1, 2, and 3) indicate the order of the repetitive exposure i.e., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 3 experiments with similar results. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 vs. the 1st exposure. The left top and bottom pictures show a schematic representation of the buried cookie test (top) and the habituation/cross-habituation test (bottom) described in details Materials and Methods Section.
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Figure 1: RAG-1−∕− mice show an impaired sense of smell. Adult 7 week-old RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were tested with the buried cookie test (top panels) or the habituation/dishabituation test (bottom panels) as described in Materials and methods. The bar graph in (A) represents the time expressed in seconds required to find the buried cookie. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 4 experiments with similar results. ***p < 0.005 vs. C57BL/6 control mice. The graph in (B) shows the time expressed in seconds spent sniffing the stimuli (water, almond, banana, and social odor). The numbers on the x-axes (1, 2, and 3) indicate the order of the repetitive exposure i.e., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 3 experiments with similar results. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 vs. the 1st exposure. The left top and bottom pictures show a schematic representation of the buried cookie test (top) and the habituation/cross-habituation test (bottom) described in details Materials and Methods Section.

Mentions: The buried food test is a reliable protocol that relies on the natural tendency of the mouse to use olfactory cues for foraging. The main parameter is the latency to uncover a small piece of palatable food such as a cookie, hidden beneath a layer of sawdust, within an established length of time. We first tested the palatability of the bait leaving the cookie with mice overnight (see Materials and Methods Section) and observed no difference between RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6, i.e., both strains consumed the whole cookie. However, when we performed the test of the buried cookie, we observed a significant five-fold increase in the latency to find the bait (203 s ± 77.7 vs. 42 s ± 18.9; p < 0.001) in the RAG-1−∕− compared to control C57/BL6 mice (Figure 1A).


Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

Rattazzi L, Cariboni A, Poojara R, Shoenfeld Y, D'Acquisto F - Front Neurosci (2015)

RAG-1−∕− mice show an impaired sense of smell. Adult 7 week-old RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were tested with the buried cookie test (top panels) or the habituation/dishabituation test (bottom panels) as described in Materials and methods. The bar graph in (A) represents the time expressed in seconds required to find the buried cookie. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 4 experiments with similar results. ***p < 0.005 vs. C57BL/6 control mice. The graph in (B) shows the time expressed in seconds spent sniffing the stimuli (water, almond, banana, and social odor). The numbers on the x-axes (1, 2, and 3) indicate the order of the repetitive exposure i.e., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 3 experiments with similar results. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 vs. the 1st exposure. The left top and bottom pictures show a schematic representation of the buried cookie test (top) and the habituation/cross-habituation test (bottom) described in details Materials and Methods Section.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4563081&req=5

Figure 1: RAG-1−∕− mice show an impaired sense of smell. Adult 7 week-old RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6 mice were tested with the buried cookie test (top panels) or the habituation/dishabituation test (bottom panels) as described in Materials and methods. The bar graph in (A) represents the time expressed in seconds required to find the buried cookie. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 4 experiments with similar results. ***p < 0.005 vs. C57BL/6 control mice. The graph in (B) shows the time expressed in seconds spent sniffing the stimuli (water, almond, banana, and social odor). The numbers on the x-axes (1, 2, and 3) indicate the order of the repetitive exposure i.e., 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Values are mean ± SEM obtained from a single experiment with n = 5 mice and representative on n = 3 experiments with similar results. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 vs. the 1st exposure. The left top and bottom pictures show a schematic representation of the buried cookie test (top) and the habituation/cross-habituation test (bottom) described in details Materials and Methods Section.
Mentions: The buried food test is a reliable protocol that relies on the natural tendency of the mouse to use olfactory cues for foraging. The main parameter is the latency to uncover a small piece of palatable food such as a cookie, hidden beneath a layer of sawdust, within an established length of time. We first tested the palatability of the bait leaving the cookie with mice overnight (see Materials and Methods Section) and observed no difference between RAG-1−∕− and control C57/BL6, i.e., both strains consumed the whole cookie. However, when we performed the test of the buried cookie, we observed a significant five-fold increase in the latency to find the bait (203 s ± 77.7 vs. 42 s ± 18.9; p < 0.001) in the RAG-1−∕− compared to control C57/BL6 mice (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium.Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage.Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Queen Mary University of London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus