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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Surface morphology of the mammalian brain. Larger mammals have larger and more folded brains: The bovine brain (bottom) is larger and more folded than the porcine brain (middle) which is larger and more folded than the ovine brain (top). The cortical thickness is relatively similar in all mammals
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Fig9: Surface morphology of the mammalian brain. Larger mammals have larger and more folded brains: The bovine brain (bottom) is larger and more folded than the porcine brain (middle) which is larger and more folded than the ovine brain (top). The cortical thickness is relatively similar in all mammals

Mentions: Figure 9 illustrates the characteristic surface morphology of the mammalian brain. The photographs of bovine, porcine, and ovine brains reveal two important characteristics: Larger mammals tend to have larger brains and larger brains tend to be more folded than smaller brains (Zilles et al. 2013). With a volume of 1200 cm, a surface area of 1800 cm, and a cortical thickness of thicknesses of 2.5 mm, the human brain is one of the largest and most folded brains. The ratio between brain surface area and volume, and with it the degree of gyrification, varies significantly between species (Welker 1990). Yet, as the frontal coronal sections in Fig. 9 indicate, the thickness of the outer layer remains remarkably well preserved: It varies by less than an order of magnitude across all species.Fig. 9


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Surface morphology of the mammalian brain. Larger mammals have larger and more folded brains: The bovine brain (bottom) is larger and more folded than the porcine brain (middle) which is larger and more folded than the ovine brain (top). The cortical thickness is relatively similar in all mammals
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig9: Surface morphology of the mammalian brain. Larger mammals have larger and more folded brains: The bovine brain (bottom) is larger and more folded than the porcine brain (middle) which is larger and more folded than the ovine brain (top). The cortical thickness is relatively similar in all mammals
Mentions: Figure 9 illustrates the characteristic surface morphology of the mammalian brain. The photographs of bovine, porcine, and ovine brains reveal two important characteristics: Larger mammals tend to have larger brains and larger brains tend to be more folded than smaller brains (Zilles et al. 2013). With a volume of 1200 cm, a surface area of 1800 cm, and a cortical thickness of thicknesses of 2.5 mm, the human brain is one of the largest and most folded brains. The ratio between brain surface area and volume, and with it the degree of gyrification, varies significantly between species (Welker 1990). Yet, as the frontal coronal sections in Fig. 9 indicate, the thickness of the outer layer remains remarkably well preserved: It varies by less than an order of magnitude across all species.Fig. 9

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus