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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Brain swelling resulting from a middle cerebral artery occlusion. A healthy brain would be symmetric with respect to the white line. The midline shift demonstrates extensive swelling of the right hemisphere, reproduced from Simard et al. (2007)
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Fig7: Brain swelling resulting from a middle cerebral artery occlusion. A healthy brain would be symmetric with respect to the white line. The midline shift demonstrates extensive swelling of the right hemisphere, reproduced from Simard et al. (2007)

Mentions: During swelling or increased intracranial pressure, blood vessels can be further impaired due to compression of the surrounding tissue. This load restricts blood flow and, without regulation, increases the ischemic zone and further damages the brain tissue (Walberer et al. 2008). Without treatment, damage can propagate through the brain through the feedback between swelling and ischemia as, for instance, in the middle cerebral artery occlusion shown in Fig. 7. Decompressive craniectomy is used to prevent further swelling and to decrease intracranial pressure. This drastic invasive procedure consists in removing part of the skull to allow the brain to swell (Soustiel et al. 2010). The massive outward swelling creates zones of high stretch which, in turn, can create long-term axonal damage with decreased long-term functional outcome (Cooper et al. 2011). Indeed, axonal stretches as low as 3–5 % have been shown to create internal axonal damage (Chung et al. 2005).Fig. 7


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Brain swelling resulting from a middle cerebral artery occlusion. A healthy brain would be symmetric with respect to the white line. The midline shift demonstrates extensive swelling of the right hemisphere, reproduced from Simard et al. (2007)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig7: Brain swelling resulting from a middle cerebral artery occlusion. A healthy brain would be symmetric with respect to the white line. The midline shift demonstrates extensive swelling of the right hemisphere, reproduced from Simard et al. (2007)
Mentions: During swelling or increased intracranial pressure, blood vessels can be further impaired due to compression of the surrounding tissue. This load restricts blood flow and, without regulation, increases the ischemic zone and further damages the brain tissue (Walberer et al. 2008). Without treatment, damage can propagate through the brain through the feedback between swelling and ischemia as, for instance, in the middle cerebral artery occlusion shown in Fig. 7. Decompressive craniectomy is used to prevent further swelling and to decrease intracranial pressure. This drastic invasive procedure consists in removing part of the skull to allow the brain to swell (Soustiel et al. 2010). The massive outward swelling creates zones of high stretch which, in turn, can create long-term axonal damage with decreased long-term functional outcome (Cooper et al. 2011). Indeed, axonal stretches as low as 3–5 % have been shown to create internal axonal damage (Chung et al. 2005).Fig. 7

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus