Limits...
Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A diagram illustrating cerebral water transport in a multiple-network poroelastic model, reproduced from Tully and Ventikos (2011)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig5: A diagram illustrating cerebral water transport in a multiple-network poroelastic model, reproduced from Tully and Ventikos (2011)

Mentions: In hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the brain, causing expansion of the ventricles and tissue deformation. The mechanisms leading to hydrocephalus include blockage of the aqueduct of Sylvius, excessive cerebrospinal fluid production, or inhibited cerebrospinal fluid absorption (Clarke and Meyer 2007). Models of hydrocephalus typically couple cerebrospinal fluid flow to the deformation of the surrounding tissue (Wilkie et al. 2012; Drapaca et al. 2006). Poroelastic models for the brain parenchyma, coupled to fluid flow models for the cerebrospinal fluid, have been considered in idealized geometries and time-dependent models characterize the onset, development, and treatment of hydrocephalus (Smillie et al. 2005). The role of absorption of cerebrospinal fluid by the brain parenchyma was also studied (Levine 1999). Both axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional poroelastic models were employed to study the evolution of hydrocephalus (Wirth and Sobey 2006). Healthy and normal pressure hydrocephalus brains were compared in detail (Shahim et al. 2012). Water transport in the cerebral environment was investigated using a multiple-network poroelastic theory in a simplified spherically symmetric geometry (Tully and Ventikos 2011) as shown in Fig. 5. The latter framework allowed detailed investigation of spatiotemporal transport of fluid between the vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma, and exploration of hypotheses defining the initiation and progression of acute and chronic hydrocephalus.Fig. 5


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

A diagram illustrating cerebral water transport in a multiple-network poroelastic model, reproduced from Tully and Ventikos (2011)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig5: A diagram illustrating cerebral water transport in a multiple-network poroelastic model, reproduced from Tully and Ventikos (2011)
Mentions: In hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the brain, causing expansion of the ventricles and tissue deformation. The mechanisms leading to hydrocephalus include blockage of the aqueduct of Sylvius, excessive cerebrospinal fluid production, or inhibited cerebrospinal fluid absorption (Clarke and Meyer 2007). Models of hydrocephalus typically couple cerebrospinal fluid flow to the deformation of the surrounding tissue (Wilkie et al. 2012; Drapaca et al. 2006). Poroelastic models for the brain parenchyma, coupled to fluid flow models for the cerebrospinal fluid, have been considered in idealized geometries and time-dependent models characterize the onset, development, and treatment of hydrocephalus (Smillie et al. 2005). The role of absorption of cerebrospinal fluid by the brain parenchyma was also studied (Levine 1999). Both axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional poroelastic models were employed to study the evolution of hydrocephalus (Wirth and Sobey 2006). Healthy and normal pressure hydrocephalus brains were compared in detail (Shahim et al. 2012). Water transport in the cerebral environment was investigated using a multiple-network poroelastic theory in a simplified spherically symmetric geometry (Tully and Ventikos 2011) as shown in Fig. 5. The latter framework allowed detailed investigation of spatiotemporal transport of fluid between the vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma, and exploration of hypotheses defining the initiation and progression of acute and chronic hydrocephalus.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus